This article discusses ways in which the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and post-GATS free trade agreements may limit the EU's ability to regulate privacy and personal data protection as fundamental rights. After discussing this issue in two dimensions – the vertical relationship between trade and national and European Union (EU) law, and the horizontal relationship between trade and human rights law – the author concludes that these limits are real and pose serious risks. Inspired by recent developments in safeguarding labour, and environmental standards and sustainable development, the article argues that privacy and personal data protection should be part of, and protected by, international trade deals made by the EU. The EU should negotiate future international trade agreements with the objective of allowing them to reflect the normative foundations of privacy and personal data protection. This article suggests a specific way to achieve this objective.
The dual purpose of this literature review is, first, to identify and summarise limitations that result from the use of copyright licences in a library context, and, second, to illustrate these limitations with specific examples available in both the academic and grey literature. The licences discussed in the reviewed literature deal essentially with access to, and use of, digital content.
Amsterdam / Hong Kong: IViR, 2017.
This report presents and draws on multidisciplinary insights into what characterises effective user control over the collection and use of personal data. User controls arise from the interplay of a number of conditions. These are partly technical but also connected to different aspects of user behaviour, the intricacies of design, as well as the internal and external incentives in privacy governance that exist today. Our review of the state of research underscores that devising effective user controls require close collaboration between different disciplines, clear regulatory guidance and scientifically-backed assessments.
Prepublication version of the article.
The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international trade law in the EU legal order on the one hand, and, on the other hand, how EU data protection law would fare in a hypothetical challenge under the GATS. The contribution will apply international trade law and the general exception in GATS Article XIV to typical requirements stemming from EU data protection law, especially on transfers of personal data to third countries. The article enumerates the specific legal risks for defending EU law on privacy and data protection and explains the practical implications of its hypothetical challenge under the GATS. These insights could be useful for the EU’s negotiators of the future bi- or multilateral free trade agreements, notably the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Trade in Services Agreement.
Dit artikel maakt een synthese van twee voortgangsrapporten van de Europese Commissie in het domein van het digitale behoud van het Europees cultureel (en filmografisch) erfgoed. Het eerste rapport herziet en evalueert de vooruitgang van de digitalisering van het cultureel erfgoed die verliep tussen 2011 en 2013 volgende op de goedkeuring in 2011 van de Aanbeveling (van de Europese Commissie) betreffende de digitalisering en online toegankelijkheid van cultureel materiaal en digitale bewaring. Het tweede rapport geeft gevolg aan de Aanbeveling van het Europees Parlement over het cinematografisch erfgoed. Het concentreert zich op de vooruitgang, de uitdagingen en risico's die men tegenkomt gedurende het digitaliseringsproces van het cinematografisch erfgoed in 2012-2013. Zelfs indien de twee rapporten anntonen dat een zekere vooruitgang gerealiseerd werd in de betreffende domeinen, geven zij ook toe dat deze vooruitgang zeer beperkt was en dat de digitalisering een uitdaging blijft.
Summary Report of ACS Symposium on Saturday 11 July 2015.
The book explains Russian contract law in a form understandable to lawyers qualified in other countries, especially common law countries. The introduction gives a concise overview of the Russian legal system in general and contract law in particular as well as a brief insight into the history of contract law in Russia. Then the main concepts of Russian contract law are explained, using the conceptual framework of English contract law to make them accessible to someone not familiar with the codified Russian system.The book not only considers the legislation regulating Russian contractual relations but also includes appropriate case law to show how the legislation is interpreted. The focus is on contract law in Russia as it actually operates, rather than merely the legislative texts, so that it will be directly relevant to legal practitioners and others who wish to acquire knowledge of the practical application of an important element of the Russian legal system, as well as those seeking an insight into the realities of codified law in action. The target readership therefore includes legal practitioners who have to deal with Russian law, academics and students with an interest in Russian law, the law of contract and comparative civil law, as well as scholars of comparative legal systems and Russian area studies.