• Personalised Communication: A joint Communication and Information Law Initiative

    Understanding the use and effects of personalised media and their implications for law and policy

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  • 18th International Copyright Law Summer Course

    3-7 July 2017

    Pre-Announcement

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  • 5th Privacy Law and Policy Summer Course

    3-7 July 2017

    Pre-Announcement

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News

Publications

Exposure diversity as a design principle for recommender systems

D'Acunto, L.

Helberger, N.

Karppinen, K.

Personalized recommendations in search engines, social media and also in more traditional media increasingly raise concerns over potentially negative consequences for diversity and the quality of public discourse. The algorithmic filtering and adaption of online content to personal preferences and interests is often associated with a decrease in the diversity of information to which users are exposed. Notwithstanding the question of whether these claims are correct or not, this article discusses whether and how recommendations can also be designed to stimulate more diverse exposure to information and to break potential ‘filter bubbles’ rather than create them. Combining insights from democratic theory, computer science and law, the article makes suggestions for design principles and explores the potential and possible limits of ‘diversity sensitive design’.

19-01-2017

Regulating for Creativity and Cultural Diversity: the Case of Collective Management Organisations and the Music Industry

Dave Laing

Simone Schroff

John Street

This paper explores the role of intermediary institutions in promoting creativity and cultural diversity in the music industry, and the impact of cultural policy on the performance of those intermediaries. It reviews some of the existing literature on the relationship between economic conditions and innovation in music, and argues that too little attention has been paid to intermediaries. Focusing on collective management organisations (CMOs) as one example of overlooked intermediaries, we illustrate, by way of comparison, the different priorities and incentives that drive CMO practice. These variations, we suggest, are important to appreciating how CMOs operate as intermediaries in different territories. We then turn our attention to recent attempts by the EU to reform CMO practice as part of its Digital Single Market project. The fact that the CMO has been an object of reform is indicative of its importance. However, there is more at stake here: the reforms themselves, in seeking to change the role and behaviour of CMOs will, we suggest, have profound consequences for the market in music in Europe, and for creativity and cultural diversity within that market.

17-01-2017

Smart TV and the online media sector: User privacy in view of changing market realities

Helberger, N.

Irion, K.

Smart TV and online media enable precise monitoring of online media consumption, which also forms the basis for personalised recommendations. This new practice challenges EU policy in two respects. Firstly, the legality of monitoring individual media consumption and using personal data of users is primarily addressed under data protection law. Secondly, tracking of viewing behaviour and personalisation of media content can also affect individuals’ freedom to receive information, as well as the realisation of media policy objectives such as media freedom and pluralism, implications that so far are not reflected in media law and policy, or only marginally. This article addresses the increasing reliance on personal data and personalised services in the audiovisual and online media sector and queries the appropriateness of the legal status quo in light of implementation and enforcement actions in Germany and the Netherlands. The analysis concludes with a call for media policy makers and regulators to pay more attention to the issue of ‘smart surveillance’ of media users, and develops a number of concrete recommendations on how to accommodate the specific privacy concerns of media users.

03-01-2017

Wifi-tracking in de winkel(straat): inbreuk op de privacy?

B.F.E. Bosch,

van Eijk, N.

Tegenwoordig wordt de consument op steeds grotere schaal gevolgd via de wifi-signalen die smartphones uitzenden. Inzicht in hoe consumenten zich gedragen in een winkel levert commerciële voordelen op voor de winkeliers, maar ook risico's voor de persoonlijke levenssfeer. Onder de Wet bescherming persoonsgegevens is gegevensverwerking via wifi-tracking toegestaan, mits wordt voldaan aan de strenge eisen die de wet stelt. Ter vergelijking wordt gekeken naar de regulering van wifi-tracking in de Verenigde Staten.

20-12-2016

Annotatie bij Rb. Noord-Holland 31 augustus 2016 (Klous + Brandjes / Bot Bouw)

Kabel, J.

Het gebruik van auteursrecht als incassomiddel door een architect tegen de opvolgende aannemer.

20-12-2016

Annotatie bij Hof Den Haag 19 juli 2016 (Your Hosting / Bavaria)

van Gompel, S.

Auteursrecht op slagzinnen.

20-12-2016

De privékopie in internationaal perspectief

Poort, J.

Ondanks een tiental uitspraken van het Europese Hof van Justitie over de privékopie zijn er nog altijd grote verschillen tussen lidstaten in de inrichting van het stelsel, de dragers, de tarieven en de incasso per hoofd van de bevolking. Dit artikel geeft een inkijk in deze verschillen en concludeert dat een heldere link tussen de vergoedingen en de vermeende schade nog ver te zoeken is.

20-12-2016

Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 13 oktober 2015

Dommering, E.

nr. 469

Journalist mag een identiteitsbewijs alleen in het kader van de nieuwsgaring vervalsen als er objectief gezien geen legaal middel voor handen is en het nieuwsgaringsbelang heel hoog is.

08-12-2016

Annotatie bij Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens 12 juli 2016 (SIA AKKA/LAA / Letland)

Breemen, V.

Deze zaak draait om licentieovereenkomsten tussen collectieve auteursrechtenbeheersorganisatie (hierna ook: cbo) SIA AKKA/LAA en enkele Letse radiostations voor de uitzending van muziekwerken van aangesloten auteurs. Eind jaren ’90 kon met deze stations geen akkoord worden bereikt over nieuwe licenties. Vooral de hoogte van de vergoeding voor de muziekuitzending bleek daarbij een dissonant. De omroepen gingen desondanks door met uitzenden. Ze betaalden ofwel niet, ofwel een eenzijdig bepaald bedrag. SIA AKKA/LAA spande daarop twee nationale procedures aan wegens auteursrechtinbreuk en eiste schadevergoeding.

08-12-2016

Human rights and encryption

Schulz, W.,

van Hoboken, J.

The study provides an overview of encryption technologies and their impact on human rights. It analyzes in-depth the role of encryption in the media and communications landscape, and the impact on different services, entities and end users. It highlights good practices and examines the legal environment surrounding encryption as well as various case studies of encryption policies. Built on this exploration and analysis, the research provides recommendations on encryption policy that are useful for various stakeholders. These include signaling the need to counter the lack of gender sensitivity in the current debate, and also highlighting ideas for enhancing “encryption literacy”.

01-12-2016

Annotatie bij Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens 16 juni 2015 (Delfi AS / Estland)

Dommering, E.

nr. 457

Privacy en vrijheid van meningsuiting. Civielrechtelijke veroordeling exploitant nieuwswebsite vanwege beledigende reacties op webforum nieuwszenderuitlatingen door lezers. Geen schending vrijheid van meningsuiting.

29-11-2016

Geheime surveillance en opsporing

Eskens, S.

van Daalen, O.

van Eijk, N.

Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR, Universiteit van Amsterdam), november 2016, 52 pp.

In een nieuw onderzoek concluderen onderzoekers van het Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR, Universiteit van Amsterdam) dat bij het inzetten van geheime surveillance voor de opsporing van strafbare feiten onafhankelijk toezicht en transparantie gewaarborgd moeten zijn. Uitspraken van Europese rechters hierover zijn duidelijk: er gelden dezelfde normen voor nationale veiligheid als voor de opsporing van strafbare feiten. Het rapport vertaalt deze normen in tien richtsnoeren waarmee rekening moet worden gehouden bij het ontwerp van nieuwe wetgeving.

22-11-2016

Communication to a New Public? Three reasons why EU copyright law can do without a 'new public'

Hugenholtz, P.

van Velze, S.

This article critically examines the 'new public' test in EU copyright law, which was developed by the CJEU interpreting the right of communication to the public in cases of retransmission and hyperlinking. As the authors seek to demonstrate, this test is flawed for at least three reasons: historical, conceptual and economic. EU copyright law can do well without a 'new public' test.

18-11-2016

Digital libraries, digital law? A tale of copyright challenges and chances

Breemen, V.

This contribution inquires the following assumption: if libraries have a public task to provide low threshold access to (online) information, then shouldn’t copyright law, as a system of exclusive rights and exceptions which shares goals in the organization and dissemination of information, somehow facilitate that task?

28-10-2016

Final report of the Expert Group on the development and implications of patent law in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering

Bostyn, S.

European Commission, Directorate General Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (DG GROW).

This is the Final Report of the of the Europen Commission Expert Group on the development and implications of patent law in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering, which is chaired by Dr. Sven Bostyn. It describes in detail the issues regarding a number of very important topics in the area of biotechnological inventions, i.e., the patentability of plants and processes for making plants, issues relating to human embryonic stem cells and the patentability of human DNA. It finally provides advice for future policy and legislative work.

28-10-2016

Trade and privacy: Complicated bed fellows? How to achieve data protection-proof free trade agreements

Irion, K.

Speaking notes for a panel debate hosted by MEP Viviane Reding at the European Parliament on 12 October 2016.

18-10-2016

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