1. Which indicators underpin regulatory differentiation between media services? Name two ECtHR judgments that seem to support a technology-specific approach to regulation. [Blogpost] 
  1. What did Edward R. Murrow (1958) and Mark Fowler (1981) mean in terms of media regulation when they referred to the television as being “nothing but wires and lights in a box” and “just a toaster with pictures” respectively? [Blogpost] 
  1. What are the main characteristics of modern-day media convergence? [Infographic, blogpost] 
  1. What are the main challenges to quality journalism posed by (current) AI-applications, and how has European law and policy so far addressed those challenges? [Video] 


  • Convergence and media policy [a higher cognitive level assignment] 

The digitally converging media environment arguably requires a form of media regulation and policy that is as technology-neutral and flexible as possible, while also accounting for nuances of how the medium of delivery may affect (groups of) media users. 

Imagine you are a legislator or government policy maker responsible for the development of a new, comprehensive regulatory/policy framework for media that responds to the challenges of technological change and (digital) media convergence. Based on the insights you have gained from this Knowledge Package and based on your intuition, which 5 principles do you think should guide this reform? For example, you could argue that the focus of such a new framework should be on media content (content-oriented regulation), or on self- and/or co-regulation rather than on legislative requirements. There are no clearly right or wrong answers; let your thoughts run free!  

  • Ethical guidelines for AI in journalism [a higher cognitive level assignment] 

As you have learned from the other knowledge packages, journalists and other media actors are the bearers of duties and responsibilities under Article 10 ECHR. They must act in good faith, report on an accurate factual basis, and provide reliable and precise information in  accordance with the ethics of journalism. To determine their specific duties and responsibilities, the potential impact of the medium in question must be taken into account (for instance, targeted news provision with the use of AI-driven tools may give rise to heavier duties and responsibilities). 

Considering the growing use of AI-driven tools in journalism, the question arises which specific duties and responsibilities journalists must adhere to in that regard. To date, there is no ‘universal code’ for journalists and media organisations on the responsible use of AI-driven tools in journalism. Some organisations have, however, already drafted their own guidelines.  

Read the AI Ethics Guidelines developed by the German broadcasting service Bayerischer Rundfunk (2020) carefully. In light of what you know about journalists’ duties and responsibilities and, more generally, about ethics in AI, are there any principles missing? If so, which principles do you think should additionally be included? Again, there are no clearly right or wrong answers; the point of the exercise is to engage in an active discussion.  

  • AI Journalism Starter Pack [assignment for media organisations and journalists] 

JournalismAI, an initiative from the London School of Economics (LSE), has developed a “starter pack” for media organisations to learn more about the use of AI-tools in journalism. Explore the plethora of resources and discuss how your organisation can responsibly exploit the potential of AI for the creation and distribution of journalistic content.