TDM: Poland challenges the rule of EU copyright law external link

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2024

Copyright, EU, Poland, text and data mining

Bibtex

Online publication{nokey, title = {TDM: Poland challenges the rule of EU copyright law}, author = {Keller, P.}, url = {https://copyrightblog.kluweriplaw.com/2024/02/20/tdm-poland-challenges-the-rule-of-eu-copyright-law/}, year = {2024}, date = {2024-02-20}, journal = {Kluwer Copyright Blog}, keywords = {Copyright, EU, Poland, text and data mining}, }

Generative AI and Author Remuneration

IIC, vol. 54, pp: 1535-1560, 2023

Abstract

With the evolution of generative AI systems, machine-made productions in the literary and artistic field have reached a level of refinement that allows them to replace human creations. The increasing sophistication of AI systems will inevitably disrupt the market for human literary and artistic works. Generative AI systems provide literary and artistic output much faster and cheaper. It is therefore foreseeable that human authors will be exposed to substitution effects. They may lose income as they are replaced by machines in sectors ranging from journalism and writing to music and visual arts. Considering this trend, the question arises whether it is advisable to take measures to compensate human authors for the reduction in their market share and income. Copyright law could serve as a tool to introduce an AI levy system and ensure the payment of equitable remuneration. In combination with mandatory collective rights management, the new revenue stream could be used to finance social and cultural funds that improve the working and living conditions of flesh-and-blood authors.

collective rights management, Copyright, Freedom of expression, text and data mining, three-step test

Bibtex

Article{nokey, title = {Generative AI and Author Remuneration}, author = {Senftleben, M.}, doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s40319-023-01399-4}, year = {2023}, date = {2023-11-07}, journal = {IIC}, volume = {54}, pages = {1535-1560}, abstract = {With the evolution of generative AI systems, machine-made productions in the literary and artistic field have reached a level of refinement that allows them to replace human creations. The increasing sophistication of AI systems will inevitably disrupt the market for human literary and artistic works. Generative AI systems provide literary and artistic output much faster and cheaper. It is therefore foreseeable that human authors will be exposed to substitution effects. They may lose income as they are replaced by machines in sectors ranging from journalism and writing to music and visual arts. Considering this trend, the question arises whether it is advisable to take measures to compensate human authors for the reduction in their market share and income. Copyright law could serve as a tool to introduce an AI levy system and ensure the payment of equitable remuneration. In combination with mandatory collective rights management, the new revenue stream could be used to finance social and cultural funds that improve the working and living conditions of flesh-and-blood authors.}, keywords = {collective rights management, Copyright, Freedom of expression, text and data mining, three-step test}, }

Compliance of National TDM Rules with International Copyright Law: An Overrated Nonissue? external link

IIC - International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, vol. 53, pp: 1477-1505, 2022

Abstract

Seeking to devise an adequate regulatory framework for text and data mining (TDM), countries around the globe have adopted different approaches. While considerable room for TDM can follow from the application of fair use provisions (US) and broad statutory exemptions (Japan), countries in the EU rely on a more restrictive regulation that is based on specific copyright exceptions. Surveying this spectrum of existing approaches, lawmakers in countries seeking to devise an appropriate TDM regime may wonder whether the adoption of a restrictive approach is necessary in the light of international copyright law. In particular, they may feel obliged to ensure compliance with the three-step test laid down in Art. 9(2) of the Berne Convention, Art. 13 of the TRIPS Agreement and Art. 10 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Against this background, the analysis raises the question whether international copyright law covers TDM activities at all. TDM does not concern a traditional category of use that could have been contemplated at the diplomatic conferences leading to the current texts of the Berne Convention, the TRIPS Agreement and the WIPO Copyright Treaty. It is an automated, analytical type of use that does not affect the expressive core of literary and artistic works. Arguably, TDM constitutes a new category of copying that falls outside the scope of international copyright harmonization altogether.

Artificial intelligence, Auteursrecht, text and data mining

Bibtex

Article{nokey, title = {Compliance of National TDM Rules with International Copyright Law: An Overrated Nonissue?}, author = {Senftleben, M.}, url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40319-022-01266-8}, doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s40319-022-01266-8}, year = {2022}, date = {2022-11-25}, journal = {IIC - International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law}, volume = {53}, pages = {1477-1505}, abstract = {Seeking to devise an adequate regulatory framework for text and data mining (TDM), countries around the globe have adopted different approaches. While considerable room for TDM can follow from the application of fair use provisions (US) and broad statutory exemptions (Japan), countries in the EU rely on a more restrictive regulation that is based on specific copyright exceptions. Surveying this spectrum of existing approaches, lawmakers in countries seeking to devise an appropriate TDM regime may wonder whether the adoption of a restrictive approach is necessary in the light of international copyright law. In particular, they may feel obliged to ensure compliance with the three-step test laid down in Art. 9(2) of the Berne Convention, Art. 13 of the TRIPS Agreement and Art. 10 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Against this background, the analysis raises the question whether international copyright law covers TDM activities at all. TDM does not concern a traditional category of use that could have been contemplated at the diplomatic conferences leading to the current texts of the Berne Convention, the TRIPS Agreement and the WIPO Copyright Treaty. It is an automated, analytical type of use that does not affect the expressive core of literary and artistic works. Arguably, TDM constitutes a new category of copying that falls outside the scope of international copyright harmonization altogether.}, keywords = {Artificial intelligence, Auteursrecht, text and data mining}, }

Implementing User Rights for Research in the Field of Artificial Intelligence: A Call for International Action external link

Flynn, S., Geiger, C., Quintais, J., Margoni, T., Sag, M., Guibault, L. & Carroll, M.
European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 2020, num: 7, 2020

Abstract

Last year, before the onset of a global pandemic highlighted the critical and urgent need for technology-enabled scientific research, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched an inquiry into issues at the intersection of intellectual property (IP) and artificial intelligence (AI). We contributed comments to that inquiry, with a focus on the application of copyright to the use of text and data mining (TDM) technology. This article describes some of the most salient points of our submission and concludes by stressing the need for international leadership on this important topic. WIPO could help fill the current gap on international leadership, including by providing guidance on the diverse mechanisms that countries may use to authorize TDM research and serving as a forum for the adoption of rules permitting cross-border TDM projects.

Artificial intelligence, Auteursrecht, frontpage, machine learning, tdm, text and data mining

Bibtex

Article{Flynn2020b, title = {Implementing User Rights for Research in the Field of Artificial Intelligence: A Call for International Action}, author = {Flynn, S. and Geiger, C. and Quintais, J. and Margoni, T. and Sag, M. and Guibault, L. and Carroll, M.}, url = {https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3578819}, year = {0421}, date = {2020-04-21}, journal = {European Intellectual Property Review}, volume = {2020}, number = {7}, pages = {}, abstract = {Last year, before the onset of a global pandemic highlighted the critical and urgent need for technology-enabled scientific research, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched an inquiry into issues at the intersection of intellectual property (IP) and artificial intelligence (AI). We contributed comments to that inquiry, with a focus on the application of copyright to the use of text and data mining (TDM) technology. This article describes some of the most salient points of our submission and concludes by stressing the need for international leadership on this important topic. WIPO could help fill the current gap on international leadership, including by providing guidance on the diverse mechanisms that countries may use to authorize TDM research and serving as a forum for the adoption of rules permitting cross-border TDM projects.}, keywords = {Artificial intelligence, Auteursrecht, frontpage, machine learning, tdm, text and data mining}, }

The New Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive: A Critical Look external link

European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 42, num: 1, pp: 28-41, 2020

Abstract

This article provides an overview and critical examination of the new Directive on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market. Despite some positive aspects, the Directive includes multiple problematic provisions, including the controversial new right for press publishers and the new liability regime for content-sharing platforms. On balance, the Directive denotes a normative preference for private ordering over public choice in EU copyright law, and lacks adequate safeguards for users. It is also a complex text with multiple ambiguities, which will likely fail promote the desired harmonization and legal certainty in this area.

Collective licensing, Copyright, digital content, Digital Single Market, EU law, exceptions and limitations, frontpage, Licensing, Online services, text and data mining

Bibtex

Article{Quintais2019e, title = {The New Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive: A Critical Look}, author = {Quintais, J.}, url = {https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3424770}, year = {0107}, date = {2020-01-07}, journal = {European Intellectual Property Review}, volume = {42}, number = {1}, pages = {28-41}, abstract = {This article provides an overview and critical examination of the new Directive on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market. Despite some positive aspects, the Directive includes multiple problematic provisions, including the controversial new right for press publishers and the new liability regime for content-sharing platforms. On balance, the Directive denotes a normative preference for private ordering over public choice in EU copyright law, and lacks adequate safeguards for users. It is also a complex text with multiple ambiguities, which will likely fail promote the desired harmonization and legal certainty in this area.}, keywords = {Collective licensing, Copyright, digital content, Digital Single Market, EU law, exceptions and limitations, frontpage, Licensing, Online services, text and data mining}, }

Text and Data Mining in the Proposed Directive: Where do we stand? external link

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2018

Copyright, directive, frontpage, text and data mining

Bibtex

Article{Zeybek2018b, title = {Text and Data Mining in the Proposed Directive: Where do we stand?}, author = {Zeybek, B.}, url = {http://copyrightblog.kluweriplaw.com/2018/03/23/text-data-mining-proposed-directive-stand/}, year = {0326}, date = {2018-03-26}, journal = {Kluwer Copyright Blog}, keywords = {Copyright, directive, frontpage, text and data mining}, }

Een auteursrechtelijke uitzondering voor TDM: is het genoeg? external link

AMI, num: 2, pp: 80-86, 2017

Abstract

Met het recente DSM-richtlijnvoorstel wil de Europese Commissie de weg vrijmaken voor gebruik van ‘text and data mining’ (TDM) ten behoeve van wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Daarmee bevestigt zij dat TDM in principe een auteursrechtelijk relevante handeling is, waarmee zij gebruikers die niet onder de exceptie vallen in een ongunstige positie kan brengen. Tegelijkertijd miskent de focus op het auteursrecht de onderliggende problematiek. Dit artikel neemt de ‘TDM-exceptie’ onder de loep, plaatst vraagtekens bij de effectiviteit ervan en werpt een blik op de toekomstbestendigheid van de TDM-exceptie.

Auteursrecht, excepties, frontpage, tdm, text and data mining, wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Bibtex

Article{Caspers2017, title = {Een auteursrechtelijke uitzondering voor TDM: is het genoeg?}, author = {Caspers, M.}, url = {https://www.ivir.nl/publicaties/download/AMI_2017_2-1.pdf}, year = {0523}, date = {2017-05-23}, journal = {AMI}, number = {2}, abstract = {Met het recente DSM-richtlijnvoorstel wil de Europese Commissie de weg vrijmaken voor gebruik van ‘text and data mining’ (TDM) ten behoeve van wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Daarmee bevestigt zij dat TDM in principe een auteursrechtelijk relevante handeling is, waarmee zij gebruikers die niet onder de exceptie vallen in een ongunstige positie kan brengen. Tegelijkertijd miskent de focus op het auteursrecht de onderliggende problematiek. Dit artikel neemt de ‘TDM-exceptie’ onder de loep, plaatst vraagtekens bij de effectiviteit ervan en werpt een blik op de toekomstbestendigheid van de TDM-exceptie.}, keywords = {Auteursrecht, excepties, frontpage, tdm, text and data mining, wetenschappelijk onderzoek}, }