Hate speech: readings and resources

Compiled by Tarlach McGonagle
April 2024

This reading list on hate speech is structured somewhat differently to the other reading lists in the #DigitalShelvesInitiative. It has two parts: Part I comprises academic and policy materials and resources; Part II sets out an extensive selection of regulatory and policy instruments addressing hate speech, organised per intergovernmental organisation (Council of Europe, United Nations, European Union, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe).


Academic and policy materials and resources

Other online resources


Council of Europe


European Court of Human Rights

Committee of Ministers

Parliamentary Assembly

European Commission against Racism and Inequality (ECRI)

Congress of Local and Regional Authorities

  • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, Charter of European Political Parties for a Non-Racist Society (Revised), Resolution 415 (2017): https://rm.coe.int/16806fe48b

Venice Commission

  • European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), Report on the Relationship between Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Religion: the Issue of Regulation and Prosecution of Blasphemy, Religious Insult and Incitement to Religious Hatred, CDL-AD(2008)026, adopted at its 76th Plenary Session held in Venice on 17-18 October 2008.

General resources

United Nations

Treaties and Declarations

UN Special Rapporteurs


European Union