• The Documentation Center is closed between the 16th and 23rd of Augustus, 2016

    Read more
  • 17th International Copyright Law Summer Course

    4-8 July 2016

    Read more
  • Privacy Law and Policy Summer Course

    4-8 July 2016

    Read more



The Reform of the e-Privacy Directive: How to get it right?

Irion, K.

Presentation delivered at the public conference organized by the Greens/EFA, 6 April 2016, European Parliament, Brussels.


Should we worry about filter bubbles?

B. Bodó

F.J. Zuiderveen Borgesius

N. Helberger

J. Möller

D. Trilling

C.H. de Vreese

Some fear that personalised communication can lead to information cocoons or filter bubbles. For instance, a personalised news website could give more prominence to conservative or liberal media items, based on the (assumed) political interests of the user. As a result, users may encounter only a limited range of political ideas. We synthesise empirical research on the extent and effects of self-selected personalisation, where people actively choose which content they receive, and pre-selected personalisation, where algorithms personalise content for users without any deliberate user choice. We conclude that at present there is little empirical evidence that warrants any worries about filter bubbles.


Profiling and targeting in the Internet of Things - A new challenge for consumer protection

N. Helberger

In: <em>Digital Revolution: Challenges for Contract Law in Practice</em>, R. Schulze & D. Staudenmayer (eds.), Baden Baden: Nomos, p. 135-161.


Smart TV and data protection - Introduction

Irion, K.

McGonagle, T.

van Eijk, N.

IRIS Special, European Audvisual Observatory, Strasbourg 2016.
ISBN 9789287182395.
See here for more information and ability to purchase publication.

The structure of this study is built around the following questions:
- What is smart TV?
- How does smart TV compare with other forms of audiovisual media?
- What regulatory frameworks govern smart TV?
- What guidance can be found in selected country-specific case studies?
- What are the dangers associated with the collection, storage and processing of private user information by commercial parties?
- How are relevant regulatory frameworks likely to evolve?

Samsung have warned owners of their smart TVs that the system’s voice recognition could actually be recording and sharing their private conversations. This “bad buzz” comes at a time when Brussels is in the process of adopting new legislation – the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - aimed at protecting us from abuse and misuse of our private data and consumer behaviour big data collected by smart equipment such as television sets. The European Audiovisual Observatory, part of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, is keeping track of these developments and has published this IRIS Special report entitled "Smart TV and data protection".

This is a joint publication by the Observatory and partner institution, the Dutch Institute for Information Law (IViR in Amsterdam). It inspired an expert workshop organised in Strasbourg December 2015, which looked at “the grey areas between media regulation and data protection”.


Blockchain: Recht en cultuur bepalen succes fintech

Arnbak, A.

Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 30 december 2015.


Datamining: Tussen technologie en democratie bij verkiezingen

Arnbak, A.

Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 28 januari 2016.


A special regard: The Court of Justice and the fundamental rights to privacy and data protection

Irion, K.

In: Festschrift für Wolfhard Kohte, Faber et al (eds.), Baden-Baden: Nomos, forthcoming 2016.


More Publications