• Russia's new anti-piracy law: A critical analysis S.V. Yakovleva

    European Intellectual Property Review,  2015-9, p. 608-613.

    This article analyses Russia's  new anti-piracy law aimed at improving online enforcement of copyright and related rights. The article places the new developments in the context of the prior intellctual property rights enforcement regime and Russia's international and constitutional obligations to secure the right to freedom of expression. The author discusses and critically assesses the most important changes introduced by the new law, and draws conclusions about their correlation with freedom of expression, overall effectiveness and the impact on right holders, internet users and the internet industry.


  • European Commission's progress reports on digitisation of the European cultural (and film) heritage S.V. Yakovleva

    Cahiers de la documentation - Bladen voor documentatie,  2015-3, p. 74-77.

    Dit artikel maakt een synthese van twee voortgangsrapporten van de Europese Commissie in het domein van het digitale behoud van het Europees cultureel (en filmografisch) erfgoed. Het eerste rapport herziet en evalueert de vooruitgang van de digitalisering van het cultureel erfgoed die verliep tussen 2011 en 2013 volgende op de goedkeuring in 2011 van de Aanbeveling (van de Europese Commissie) betreffende de digitalisering en online toegankelijkheid van cultureel materiaal en digitale bewaring. Het tweede rapport geeft gevolg aan de Aanbeveling van het Europees Parlement over het cinematografisch erfgoed. Het concentreert zich op de vooruitgang, de uitdagingen en risico's die men tegenkomt gedurende het digitaliseringsproces van het cinematografisch erfgoed in 2012-2013. Zelfs indien de twee rapporten anntonen dat een zekere vooruitgang gerealiseerd werd in de betreffende domeinen, geven zij ook toe dat deze vooruitgang zeer beperkt was en dat de digitalisering een uitdaging blijft.


  • De toenemende invloed van het Handvest op het recht van intellectuele eigendom Mr. Chr. A. Alberdingk Thijm & mr. C. de Vries,

    Berichten Industriële Eigendom,  2015-68, p. 174-183.


  • Study commissioned by the Council of Europe, Amsterdam/Edinburgh/Tirana, August 2015.


  • 05.11.2015

  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 4 november 2015.


  • This paper discusses the regulation of mass metadata surveillance in Europe through the lens of the landmark judgment in which the Court of Justice of the European Union struck down the Data Retention Directive. The controversial directive obliged telecom and Internet access providers in Europe to retain metadata of all their customers for intelligence and law enforcement purposes, for a period of up to two years. In the ruling, the Court declared the directive in violation of the human rights to privacy and data protection. The Court also confirmed that the mere collection of metadata interferes with the human right to privacy. In addition, the Court developed three new criteria for assessing the level of data security required from a human rights perspective: security measures should take into account the risk of unlawful access to data, and the data’s quantity and sensitivity. While organizations that campaigned against the directive have welcomed the ruling, we warn for the risk of proceduralization of mass surveillance law. The Court did not fully condemn mass surveillance that relies on metadata, but left open the possibility of mass surveillance if policymakers lay down sufficient procedural safeguards. Such proceduralization brings systematic risks for human rights. Government agencies, with ample resources, can design complicated systems of procedural oversight for mass surveillance – and claim that mass surveillance is lawful, even if it affects millions of innocent people.


  • Comment in Internet Policy Review, 23 October 2015.


  • Positive obligations concerning freedom of expression: mere potential or real power? Dr. T. McGonagle

    Chapter in: Journalism at risk: Threats, challenges and perspectives, O. Andreotti (ed.), Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing 2015, p. 9-35.

    This chapter examines how the European Court of Human Rights has identified and developed a range of positive State obligations to secure the right to freedom of expression.  It first briefly examines the theoretical and normative bases for the positive obligations doctrine and then traces its hesitant development in the case-law of the Court. Next, it shows how the Court has slowly become more comfortable with the doctrine and more confident when applying it to cases involving freedom of expression, culminating in its Dink v. Turkey judgment. The driving argument of the chapter is that the positive obligations doctrine has enormous potential for strengthening the right to freedom of expression and that the Court must now tease out its implications in concrete cases in a very scrupulous way, if the doctrine’s full potential is to be realised.


  • Freedom of Expression, the Media and Journalists: Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights D. Voorhoof, Dr. T. McGonagle

    IRIS Themes,   nr. III, Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory 2015, 409 pp.

    New, updated version.

    This e-book provides valuable insights into the European Court of Human Rights’ case-law on freedom of expression and media and journalistic freedoms. The first edition of the e-book (2013) proved hugely successful, with 18,671 downloads in 2014 alone. The new updated edition summarises over 240 judgments or decisions by the Court and provides hyperlinks to the full text of each of the summarised judgments or decisions (via HUDOC, the Court's online case-law database). The e-book is also available in French.
    For an optimal navigational experience, one should download the e-book and read the technical tips on p. 3.


  • Final report of HERMES project lead by Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schulz (Hans-Bredow-Institut for Media Research) and Prof. Dr. Nico van Eijk (Institute for Information Law), Hamburg/Amsterdam, October 2015.

    The study on the future of European audiovsiual media regulation develops new ideas and recommendations for shaping a new European framework. A structural reform is favoured, as a response to digitization and convergence. The new framework should concentrate on general principles and be able to adapt and learn. Regulation should not be linked to types of services, but rather be developed by considering its goals, like protection of minors and consumer protection. Standards should be set allowing for effective regulation and coordination. Moreover by taking a 360-degree view on all relevant areas of regulation, it needs to become visible, where the European Law can offer leeway for to the member states’ own media policy.
    The study called HERMES draws a precise image of current media consumption and value-added chains by examining several EU member states, as well as certain international states. The developments of the last years are being examined and current phenomena are explored. The centre of attention is the shift away from regular TV to non-linear media and the consumption via alternative channels as well as via new devices, which were not yet taken into account when shaping the present framework. The outcomes are analysed and put into practical guidelines for the near future.


  • Amsterdam/Cambridge, 2015.

    The EU-US Privacy Bridges project is co-chaired by Nico van Eijk and Daniel J. Weitzner.
    See report for full list of project participants and see EU-US Privacy Bridges project page for more information about the project.

    The EU and US share a common commitment to privacy protection as a cornerstone of democracy. Following the Treaty of Lisbon, data privacy is a fundamental right that the European Union must proactively guarantee. In the United States, data privacy derives from constitutional protections in the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendment as well as federal and state statute, consumer protection law and common law. The ultimate goal of effective privacy protection is shared. However, current friction between the two legal systems poses challenges to realizing privacy and the free flow of information across the Atlantic. Recent expansion of online surveillance practices underline these challenges.
    Over nine months, the group prepared a consensus report outlining a menu of privacy “bridges” that can be built to bring the European Union and the United States closer together. The efforts are aimed at providing a framework of practical options that advance strong, globally-accepted privacy values in a manner that respects the substantive and procedural differences between the two jurisdictions.
    The report will be presented at the 2015 International Conference of Privacy and Data Protection Commissioners, which the Dutch Data Protection Authority will host in Amsterdam on 28-29 October 2015.


  • 20.10.2015

  • Back to Black: Mr. dr. A. Tsoutsanis

    Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice,  2015-10, p. 725.


    This short - peer reviewed - article touches on innovation in China in the field of smart phones, recent legislative reform in China for fostering intellectual property and combating counterfeit and trade mark grabbing. It also touches on human rights in China, the different approach in which the West advances its economic v human rights agenda and the selective way Silicon Valley industry participates in grass roots debate on civil liberties. The article also touches on the 'right to seek counsel' as one of the fundamental rights, which many arrested lawyers in China were deprived of during the July 2015 arrests.


  • Video series produced by the Council of Europe, The Hows and Whys: Freedom of Expression, a Human Right, October 2015.

    This is one of seven videos about different aspects of the right to freedom of expression: hate speech, protection of sources, defamation, access to information, terrorism, Internet freedom and new opportunities and challenges for freedom of expression. The videos were produced  by the Council of Europe and they take the form of interviews with leading experts in the field, including three sitting judges of the European Court of Human Rights, a former Vice-President of the Court and the Council of Europe Human Rights Commissioner.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 7 oktober 2015.


  • Boekbespreking van D. Voorhoof & P. Valcke, Handboek Mediarecht, 4e editie, Brussel: Larcier 2014.


  • Dit artikel bespreekt de recente ontwikkelingen in het Nederlandse telecommunicatielandschap en gaat in op de verwachtingen voor de komende jaren. Hoe zullen de markten voor televisie, telefonie en breedband op vast en mobiel zich de komende jaren ontwikkelen, gemeten naar het aantal aansluitingen en de omzet? Welke verdere ontwikkelingen tekenen zich af en welke gevolgen zouden die moeten hebben voor de strategie van aanbieders?


  • iLINC Law Incubator Brief, 2015.


  • iLINC (ICT Law Incubators Network), Work Package 3, September 2015.


  • iLINC (ICT Law Incubators Network), September 2015.


  • DOI: 10.1093/ijlit/eav015
    Also available at SSRN

    In line with the overall trend individuals’ personal affairs, too, are composed of digital records to an increasing amount. At about the same time, the era of local storage in end user equipment is about to give way to remote computing where data resides on third party equipment (cloud computing). Once information, and even the most personal one, is no longer stored on personal equipment the relationship between individual users and their digital assets belonging to them is becoming increasingly abstract.
    This contribution focuses on the implications of cloud computing for individuals’ unpublicized digital records. The question to be answered is whether - taken together - the progressing virtualization and the disruption of physical control produce a backslide for individual positions of rights. The paper introduces the legal treatment of users’ digital personal records and how a technical transformation in combination with disparate legal protection and prevailing commercial practices are bound to impact the distribution of rights and obligations.


  • Summary Report of ACS Symposium on Saturday 11 July 2015.


  • Onderzoek in opdracht van de Raad voor Cultuur, Amsterdam, juli 2015.


  • Chapter 7 of OECD report Enquiries Into Intellectual Property's Economic Impact, 2015.

    Internet growth, content digitisation, and expanding “big data” and data analytics capabilities have affected the ways in which publicly funded research results are accessed, disseminated and used. While these technological advances have made sharing and processing information easier, that does not change the fact that the information may be protected by IP laws. Open access efforts, which aim to make the outputs of publicly funded research more widely accessible in digital formats, therefore raise a number of IP policy questions. To explain the interplay between open access and IP laws, this chapter provides an overview of the IP regimes that protect research outputs in a sample of OECD jurisdictions. It then reviews the open access policies that are in place in some of those jurisdictions and examines two contexts in which IP questions can arise when open access principles are applied: public/private partnerships and text and data mining.


  • Since the Google Spain judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Europeans have, under certain conditions, the right to have search results for their name delisted. This paper examines how the Google Spain judgment has been applied in the Netherlands. Since the Google Spain judgment, Dutch courts have decided on two cases regarding delisting requests. In both cases, the Dutch courts considered freedom of expression aspects of delisting more thoroughly than the Court of Justice. However, the effect of the Google Spain judgment on freedom of expression is difficult to assess, as search engine operators decide about most delisting requests without disclosing much about their decisions.


  • De 'extended collective license (ECL) - ofwel de 'verruimde' collectieve licentieovereenkomst - staat in Nederland en elders ter wereld al enkele jaren sterk in de belangstelling, met name als wettelijk instrument om de rights clearance voor massadigitaliseringsprojecten van erfgoedinstellingen te vergemakkelijken. Naar aanleiding van een gezamenlijke brief van de Nederlandse erfgoedinstellingen en de Federatie Auteursrechtbelangen heeft het Ministerie van OCW door het IViR onderzoek laten verrichten naar het ECL-model en daarover een seminar met belanghebbbenden georganiseerd. In de zomer van 2015 wordt een standpuntbepaling van het kabinet inzake ECL verwacht. In dit artikel worden de belangijkste bevindingen van het onderzoek samengevat. Welke voor- en nadelen zou een ECL-regeling bieden ten opzichte van het huidige Nederlandse model van vrijwillige collectieve licenties die zonder ondersteunende wettelijke maatregelen tot stand komen?


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 9 september 2015.


  • Regulating the new information intermediaries as gatekeepers of information diversity Prof. dr. N. Helberger , K. Kleinen-von Königslöw, Rob van der Noll,

    Info,  2015-6, p. 50-71.



  • DOI:


  • DOI:


  • 25.08.2015

  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 12 augustus 2015.


  • This study was carried out for the European Commission by Europe Economics and Lucie Guibault, Olivia Salamanca and Stef van Gompel of the University of Amsterdam (IViR). 
    ISBN 9789279471629
    DOI: 10.2759/834167

    See also:

    This study analyses the current situation regarding the level of remuneration paid to authors and performers in the music and audio-visual sectors. We compare, from both a legal and economic perspective, the existing national systems of remuneration for authors and performers and identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of those systems for them. We also explore the need to harmonise mechanisms affecting the remuneration of authors and performers, and to identify which ones are the best suited to achieve this. Their potential impact on distribution models and on the functioning of the Internal Market is also examined. Finally, the study outlines a series of policy recommendations based on the analysis conducted.
    The information and views set out in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission. The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this report. Neither the Commission nor any person acting on the Commission’s behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein.


  • 14 July 2015.
    This paper explores the social, demographic and attitudinal basis of consumer support to a change from the status quo in digital cultural distribution. First we identify how different online and offline, legal and illegal, free and paying content acquisition channels are used in the Dutch media market using a cluster-based classification of respondents according to their cultural consumption. Second, we assess the effect of cultural consumption on the support to the introduction of a Copyright Compensation System (CCS), which, for a small monthly fee would legalize currently infringing online social practices such as private copying from illegal sources and online sharing of copyrighted works. Finally, we link these two analyses to identify the factors that drive the dynamics of change in digital cultural consumption habits.


  • In dit rapport doen de onderzoekers tien aanbevelingen voor het toezicht op geheime diensten. Zo moet rechterlijke controle bij het toezicht de voorkeur hebben. Ook moet meer openheid worden gegeven over de uitoefening van bevoegdheden, onder meer door het publiceren van statistische gegevens.
    De aanbevelingen vloeien voort uit een analyse van Europese mensenrechtenuitspraken van de afgelopen decennia. De onderzoekers hebben hiertoe vonnissen van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Unie bestudeerd. De onderzoekers hebben zich vooral gericht op het onderscheppen van communicatie, maar de aanbevelingen zijn ook toepasbaar bij het toezicht op andere gebieden.

    In this report, the researchers offer ten policy recommendations for oversight on intelligence services. Recommendations include that intelligence services should be subject to independent, prior oversight and that governments should be transparent about the exercise of surveillance powers.
    The recommendations are based on an analysis of European human rights jurisprudence of the past decades. The researchers have studied decisions of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union. The researchers mostly focused on the interception of communication, but the policy recommendations are also applicable to oversight on other areas.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 15 juli 2015.


  • Amsterdam, juli 2015, SEO Economisch Onderzoek, 2015-33.
    In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken.
    ISBN: 9789067337793.

    Op 31 december 2016 lopen de huidige 2100 MHz-vergunningen van KPN, Vodafone en T-Mobile af. Deze vergunningen worden verlengd, in beginsel tot 1 januari 2021. Op grond van het geldende reguleringskader is de vergunninghouder bij verlenging van een vergunning een vergoeding aan de Staat verschuldigd.
    Dit rapport onderzoekt de wijze waarop de waarde van verlenging binnen de beleidsmatige en procedurele randvoorwaarden te bepalen is en berekent verlengingsprijzen aan de hand van de voorgestelde methode. De uitkomst van de multibandveiling eind 2012 neemt daarbij een centrale rol in, en wordt gecombineerd met een model voor de ontwikkeling van de EBITDA over de looptijd.
    Om de verlengingsprijs voor 2100 MHz-vergunningen te berekenen, is de bruikbaarheid van de prijzen in de multibandveiling voor 2100 MHz-vergunningen onderzocht alsmede die van de prijzen voor 1800 MHz-vergunningen. Het rapport concludeert dat een verlengingsprijs op basis van de 2100 MHz-band aannemelijk een ondergrens vormt van de juiste verlengingsprijs en die op basis van de 1800 MHz-band een bovengrens, waarbij het in de rede ligt uit te gaan van het midden van deze bandbreedte.
    Dit leidt bij een verlengingsduur van vier jaar tot een verlengingsprijs van €5.907.000 miljoen voor een vergunning van 2 × 5 MHz. Voor alle drie de partijen geldt een verlengingsprijs op basis van een bezit van 2 × 20 MHz.
    De ontwikkelde methodiek zal als basis dienen voor de ministeriële regeling waarin het eenmalig bedrag voor verlenging wordt geregeld.


  • Fifteen OECD countries, ten of which EU members, have regulation for fixing the price of printed books. At least eight of these have extended such regulation to e-books. This article investigates the cultural and economic arguments as well as the legal context concerning a fixed price for e-books and deals with the question of how the arguments for and against retail price maintenance for e-books should be weighted in the light of the evidence. It concludes that while the evidence in defence of a fixed price for printed books is slim at best, the case for a fixed price for e-books is weaker still while the legal acceptability within EU law is disputable. Against this background, introducing a fixed price for e-books is ill-advised.


  • Case report.

    In the YS. and M. and S. judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled on three procedures in which Dutch judges asked for clarification on the right of asylum seekers to have access to the documents regarding the decision on asylum applications. The judgment is relevant for interpreting the concept of personal data and the scope of the right of access under the Data Protection Directive, and the right to good administration in the eu Charter of Fundamental Rights. At first glance, the judgment seems disappointing from the viewpoint of individual rights. Nevertheless, in our view the judgment provides sufficient grounds for effective access rights to the minutes in future asylum cases.


  • We hebben er niet naar gezocht, het is ons in de schoot geworpen: een themanummer. 'Open overheid' en 'open access', die twee onderwerpen hebben alleen nog een verbindende redactionele inleiding nodig en voilà: alles wat een auteursrechtjurist altijd al had willen weten over de vraag waarom het zo is dat we vrijelijk toegang moeten mogen hebben tot informatie waarvoor we zelf hebben betaald.


  • Paper presented at ALAI International Congress - 50 Years of the German Copyright Act: Remuneration for the Use of Works - Exclusivity vs. Other Approaches, Bonn, June 18-20, 2015 (Forthcoming ALAI Conference Proceedings).

    See also IViR Survey Shows Public Support for Legalizing Digital Content Sharing through Alternative Compensation System and the upcoming ACS symposium in Amsterdam on July 11, 2015.

    This paper briefly discusses an alternative legal model to assure remuneration for non-commercial mass online uses by individuals, covered by the exclusive rights of reproduction and communication/making available to the public in Directive 2001/29/EC. Alternative compensation systems (ACS) are legal mechanisms that forsake the need for direct authorization of end-user acts under the aforementioned rights – downloading, uploading, sharing, modifying –, while simultaneously ensuring compensation to creators (i.e. authors and performers) or all rights holders of works included in the scheme. After providing some background, the paper explains the concept of ACS, outlines the legal models and challenges to its implementation and reports on the results of an ongoing interdisciplinary research project on the legal and socioeconomic feasibility of such systems carried out by the Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam. Chief among the findings are the willingness of users to pay for and participate in an ACS, its quantification and, using the case-study of recorded music, the realization that such a model holds the promise of being welfare increasing.


  • Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Thirtieth Session, Geneva, June 29 to July 3, 2015.
    Study in collaboration with E. Logeais.

    This study investigates the issue of limitations and exceptions to copyright for the benefit of museums, with a view to strengthening the international understanding of the need to have adequate limitations, exploring existing and proposed models of protection, and moving towards agreement regarding specific exceptions or limitations.


  • This empirical paper discusses how copyright affects data mining (DM) by academic researchers. Based on bibliometric data, we show that where DM for academic research requires the express consent of rights holders: (1) DM makes up a significantly lower share of total research output; and (2) stronger rule-of-law is associated with less DM research. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an empirical study bears out a significant negative association between copyright protection and innovation.


  • Kroniek Telecommunicatierecht Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk

    KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi,  2015-135, p. 7808-7809.


  • Key Points:
    The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights only allows personal data processing if a data controller has a legal basis for the processing.
    This paper argues that, in most circumstances, the only available legal basis for the processing of personal data for behavioural targeting is the data subject's unambiguous consent.
    Furthermore, the paper argues that the cookie consent requirement from the e-Privacy Directive does not provide a legal basis for the processing of personal data.
    Therefore, even if companies could use an opt-out system to comply with the e-Privacy Directive's consent requirement for using a tracking cookie, they would generally have to obtain the data subject's unambiguous consent if they process personal data for behavioural targeting.


  • Kroniek Mediarecht Mr. J.M. Breemen , Mr. V.E. Breemen ,

    KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi,  2015-135, p. 7805-7808


  • ALAI Conference 2015, Bonn (Germany) 18-20 June 2015.


  • Standaardlicenties zoals Creative Commons zijn een belangrijk middel voor overheidsorganen om het (her)gebruik van overheidsinformatie te stimuleren. De uitoefening van het privaatrechtelijke auteurs- en databankenrecht versterkt zo de publiekrechtelijk geregelde openbaarheid van bestuur. Kan dat zo blijven als het initiatiefwetsvoorstel Open Overheid wet wordt? Het voorstel zet de verhouding tussen openbaarheidswetgeving en intellectuele eigendomsrechten op scherp. Dit artikel beziet de voorgenomen wetswijzigingen in het licht van de tweewegenleer, het leerstuk dat bepaalt hoe privaatrechtelijk overheidshandelen mag worden ingezet voor publieke doelen.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 17 juni 2015.


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