Call for Papers

Amsterdam Privacy Conference 2015

23-26 October 2015

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Privacy Law and Policy Summer Course

6-10 July 2015

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  • 27.03.2015

  • Venture into the future of privacy dr. K. Irion

    ELSA Synergy Magazine,  2015-57, p. 28-31.

    At the time of writing I am at the Computer Privacy and Data Protection Conference, for insiders just CPDP 2015, one of several mega-events with more than 1,000 participants from governments, European Union (EU) institutions, corporations, civil society and privacy advocates, and plenty of lawyers and academics just like me. This is emblematic of the transformation privacy and data protection have undergone from a somewhat dull area of law to a very visible cutting-edge legal expertise.


  • 24.03.2015

  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal consequences of the digitisation of cultural heritage institutions' archives and in particular to establish whether digitisation processes involve the originality required to trigger new copyright or copyright-related protection.
    As the European Commission and many MS reported, copyright and in particular "photographers rights" are cause of legal uncertainty during digitisation processes. A major role in this legally uncertain field is played by the standard of originality which is one of the main requirements for copyright protection. Only when a subject matter achieves the requested level of originality, it can be considered a work of authorship. Therefore, a first key issue analysed in this study is whether – and under which conditions – digitisation activities can be considered to be original enough as to constitute works (usually a photographic work) in their own right. A second element of uncertainty is connected with the type of work eventually created by acts of digitisation. If the process of digitisation of a (protected) work can be considered authorial, then the resulting work will be a derivative composed by two works: the original work digitally reproduced and the – probably – photographic work reproducing it. Finally, a third element of uncertainty is found in the protection afforded to "other photographs" by the last sentence of Art. 6 Term Directive and implemented in a handful of European countries.
    Accordingly, the paper is structured as follows: Part I is dedicated to the analysis of copyright law key concepts such as the originality standard, the definition of derivative works and the forms of protection available in cases of digital (or film-based) representations of objects (photographs). The second part of the study is devoted to a survey of a selection of EU Member States in an attempt to verify how the general concepts identified in Part I are applied by national legislatures and courts. The selected countries are Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands and the UK. The country analysis fulfils a double function: on the one hand it provides a specific overview of the national implementation of the solutions found at international and EU level. On the other hand, it constitutes the only possible approach in order to analyse the protection afforded by some MS to those "other photographs" (also called non original photographs or mere/simple photographs) provided for by the last sentence of Art. 6 Copyright Term Directive. Part III presents some conclusions and recommendations for cultural heritage institutions and for legislatures.


  • Empirical Evidence for Policy in Telecommunication, Copyright & Broadcasting Dr. J.P. Poort

    Vossiuspers UvA - Amsterdam University Press 2015, 287 p.
    ISBN 9789056297602.

    See here the table of contents, abstract and summary in Dutch of the dissertation.

    This dissertation contains nine articles with an empirical focus in copyright, telecommunication, and broadcasting. These articles address different research questions and employ a variety of methodological approaches. They all share an economic foundation and the aim to contribute to evidence based policymaking in the field of information law. Topics covered range from the welfare effects of illegal downloading, to those of public television; from the effectiveness of blocking access to The Pirate Bay to stop consumers from illegal downloading, to the effect of adequate legal online services on illegal downloading; from fixed price regulation for e-books, to text and video relay services to enable the hearing impaired to use telephony services; from the valuation of commercial radio licenses, to setting renewal fees for telecommunication spectrum based on an auction. Using these nine articles as case studies, the role and impact of economic evidence for policymaking in the field of information law is investigated. It is concluded that this role is positive rather than normative: legal or social norms maintain the upper hand as guiding principles for policy, more than the economic goal of welfare maximization. However, this does not by any means render economic analysis useless. Increasingly, politicians, judges and stakeholders require economic analysis and economic evidence to make
    informed decisions about new policy measures, to make optimal decisions within existing legal boundaries and to fathom the consequences of proposed legal interventions. Without empirical evidence they may simply assume the effects of a policy measure as an article of faith.


  • Korte voordracht gehouden tijdens debatavond over plagiaat in de kunsten, Akademie van Kunsten, Amsterdam, 19 februari 2015.
    Zie ook het journalistieke verslag en de videoregistratie van deze avond.


  • Wob-procedure van RTL om de concept-Miljoenennota openbaar te krijgen. De noot gaat in op de parlementaire debatten over het tijdstip van openbaarmaking van de Prinsjesdagstukken en over de betekenis van artikel 26 van de Wet op de Raad van State.


  • Zie ook 'Vertekend beeld door afschaflobby bewaarplicht' in Netkwesties, 29 januari 2015, met commentaar van Egbert Dommering 'Niet verzamelen is uitgangspunt'.


  • Lead article in IRIS plus 2014-4.


  • M.-P. Granger & K. Irion, The Court of Justice and the Data Retention Directive in Digital Rights Ireland: telling off the EU legislator and teaching a lesson in privacy and data protection, European Law Review,  2014-6, p. 835-850.

    In Digital Rights Ireland, the Court of Justice invalidated the 2006 Data Retention Directive, which required private providers to retain for a considerable period electronic communication metadata for law enforcement purposes. In this landmark ruling, the EU judiciary introduced a strict scrutiny test for EU legislative acts that interfere seriously with important rights protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights—in this case, the rights to privacy and data
    protection—and applied a rigorous assessment of the proportionality of the measure under the Charter, criticising numerous aspects of the Directive. This article presents and analyses the judgment, discussing its implications for constitutional review and constitutionalism in the European Union, and the substantive and procedural constraints that it imposes on EU and national data retention schemes. It concludes by reflecting on the ruling’s impact on European integration and data related policies.


  • Interview in Het Parool van 2 januari 2015 over veranderende positie van de social media gebruiker.


  • Re-use of public sector information in cultural heritage institutions Dr. T. Margoni & P. Keller, K. Rybicka, A. Tarkowski

    International Free and Open Source Software Law Review,  2014-1, p. 1-9.

    In 2013 the European Union amended the Directive on Public Sector Information, establishing the principle that all available information produced and collected by public sector institutions must be made available for reuse under open terms and conditions. The amended Directive also brings publicly funded libraries, museums and archives into its scope. These new rules on reuse of heritage materials, treated as public sector information (PSI), attempt for the first time to define a general framework for sharing cultural heritage information all around Europe. In this paper we argue that if Member States are not careful, the implementation of the changes required by the new Directive could do more harm than good when it comes to access to digitized cultural heritage in Europe. These concerns center on how the directive interacts with copyright legislation. The paper recommends that in order to contribute to the opening up of cultural heritage resources, Member States should ensure that all qualifying documents that are not currently covered by third party intellectual property rights fall within the scope of the Directive. Member States should also implement the Directive in a way that does not encourage or require institutions to charge for the reuse of works that they make available for reuse. For documents that are still protected by intellectual property rights but where these rights are held by the cultural heritage institutions that have these works in their collections, Member States should encourage the use of Open Definition-compliant licenses.


  • New Forms of Commercial Communications and Data Protection Law Mr. F.J. Borgesius

    In: New Forms of Commercial Communications in a Converged Audiovisual Sector, IRIS Special, p. 67-76.
    Ook beschikbaar in het Duits en Frans.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 31 december 2014.


  • Frederik Borgesius te gast bij het programma Kassa over websites en apps voor kinderen. Zie ook het artikel in De Correspondent van Dimitri Tokmetzis, Dit zijn de virtuele stalkers van uw kind, waar o.a. Ot van Daalen aan het woord komt.


  • Geschil tussen collectieve beheersorganisatie Stichting Lira (Lira) en kabelbedrijven UPC, Zeelandnet en Ziggo (UPC c.s.). Lira vordert een verbod van openbaarmaking door UPC c.s. van aan Lira door de tekstschrijvers overgedragen werk. De rechtbank oordeelt dat die overdracht geldig is en dat voor zover daarbij rechten m.b.t. toekomstige werken worden overgedragen deze voldoende bepaald zijn om te kunnen worden overgedragen. Artikel 45d Auteurswet staat daaraan niet in de weg.


  • Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken (IAV), Den Haag: AIV 2014.

    See also the English version of the advisory report:
    The Internet: A Global Free Space with Limited State Control, No. 92, Advisory Council on International Affairs, November 2014.

    Op 20 februari 2014 vroeg het kabinet de Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken (AIV) te adviseren over internetvrijheid. Volgens de adviesaanvraag zijn het recht op privacy, het recht op bescherming van data, het recht op vertrouwelijke communicatie en de vrijheid van meningsuiting voorbeelden van internetvrijheid. Het basisbeginsel is dat rechten die offline gelden, ook online gelden. Het ontstaan en de snelle groei van het internet hebben geleid tot nieuwe vormen van communicatie, die op hun beurt hebben geleid tot nieuwe vragen hoe deze rechten gewaarborgd kunnen worden, mede omdat deze rechten soms moeten worden afgewogen tegen veiligheidsbelangen. Het kabinet legt aan de AIV de vraag voor hoe internetvrijheid verder bevorderd kan worden in nationaal en internationaal beleid, hoe ver de Nederlandse jurisdictie strekt en wat de rol van het bedrijfsleven is bij het bevorderen van internetvrijheid.
    De AIV heeft een gecombineerde commissie ingesteld om dit advies voor te bereiden onder voorzitterschap van E.J. Dommering (Commissie Mensenrechten, CMR). De leden van de commissie waren dr. B.T. van Ginkel (Commissie Vrede en Veiligheid, CVV), mw. prof.dr. M. de Goede (CVV), prof.dr. E.J. Koops (CMR), mw. dr. P.C. Plooij-van Gorsel (AIV / Commissie Europese Integratie) en mw. mr. H.M. Verrijn Stuart (AIV / CMR).


  • Onderzoek in opdracht van het Ministerie van OCW, Amsterdam, 1 september 2014.

    In dit rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek wordt geanalyseerd welke voor- en nadelen de invoering van een wettelijk stelsel van extended collective licensing (‘verruimde’ collectieve licentieovereenkomsten) kan hebben om de rights clearance van digitaliseringsprojecten van erfgoedinstellingen te vergemakkelijken. Daarbij wordt een vergelijking gemaakt met de situatie waarin collectieve licenties zonder ondersteunende wettelijke maatregelen tot stand komen. De jurisdicties die zijn onderzocht zijn Denemarken, Noorwegen, Duitsland en Nederland.


  • C-201/13

    Grote Kamer. Auteursrecht. Uitleg parodie-exceptie. Vrijheid van meningsuiting. Politieke spotprent.


  • Seminar and Inter-regional Dialogue on the protection of journalists, Strasbourg, 3 November 2014, organised by the Council of Europe, UNESCO, Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), University of Sheffield and European Lawyer's Union/Union des Avocats Européens (ELU/UAE).


  • Interview verschenen in het Financieel Dagblad van 29 november 2014.


  • The Independence and Functioning of the Audiovisual Media Authority in Albania dr. K. Irion & Ledger, M., Svensson, S., Fejzulla, E.

    Amsterdam/Brussels/Budapest/Tirana, 2014.

    Study commissioned by the Council of Europe, October 2014.


  • Verschenen op de Opiniepagina van NRC Handelsblad, 26 november 2014.
    Publicatie ook beschikbaar op Netkwesties.


  • Column van 25 november 2014.


  • Pre-publication.
    In: E. Psychogiopoulou (ed.), Cultural Governance and the European Union, Houndmills and New York: Palgrave MacMillan 2015 in press.
    Also available at SSRN:

    Cultural diversity is a multifaceted concept that differs from the notion of media pluralism. However, the two concepts share important concerns particularly as regards content production, content distribution and access to content. This chapter considers the EU’s role in contributing to diverse audiovisual and online content and assesses its limits.
    Although a signatory of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, the ability of the EU to foster cultural diversity in the digital environment is confined on account of its constrained competences in the field of audiovisual media and online content. Notwithstanding, the EU develops a number of substantive policies that benefit the creation and circulation of cultural content either in an explicit or in an implicit manner. Following a value-chain approach, this chapter discusses the complementary role of various EU sectoral regulations towards this aim. The analysis focuses on the Audiovisual Media Services (AVMS) Directive (Directive 2007/65/EC – 2010/13/EU) and various aspects of the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications, particularly in relation to non-discriminatory access to bottlenecks in the distribution infrastructure and online platforms.
    The chapter advances the argument that existing EU policies have an important role to play for ensuring the free circulation of, and access to, cultural content. At the same time, aside from the cultural quotas in the above mentioned AVMS Directive, EU activity is less prominent in the field of content production. The analysis concludes by stressing the complexity of promoting cultural diversity in light of both cultural content supply and demand considerations. It also emphasises the importance of emerging policy issues, in particular net neutrality and findability.


  • In: M. Rotenberg, J. Horwitz & J. Scott, eds., Visons of Privacy in a Modern Age, New York: New Press, 2015 in press.
    Also available at SSRN:

    The innovations on which today’s Internet proliferated have been a major gift from its founders and the US government to the world. Ever since the rise of the Internet it has attracted utopian ideas of a free and borderless cyberspace, a men-made global commons that serves an international community of users. First commercialization and now the prevalence of state surveillance have significantly depreciated the utopist patina.
    Internet’s borderless nature which was once heralded to rise above the nation state has actually enabled some states to rise above their borders when engaging in mass surveillance that affects users on a global scale. International human rights law and emerging Internet governance principles have not been authoritative enough to protect users’ privacy and the confidentiality of communications.
    More or less openly, Western democracies embarked on the path of mass surveillance with the aim to fight crime and defend national security. Although country specific approaches vary, reflecting political and ideological differences, mass surveillance powers frequently raise issues of constitutional compatibility. Beyond striking the balance between public security and privacy, systemic surveillance carries the potential to erode democracy from the inside.
    This chapter’s focus is on the safeguards and accountability of mass surveillance in Europe and the US and how this affects transatlantic relations. It queries whether national systems of checks and balances are still adequate in relation to the growth and the globalization of surveillance capabilities. Lacking safeguards and accountability at the national level can exacerbate in the context of transnational surveillance. It can lead to asymmetries between countries which are precisely at the core of the transatlantic rift over mass surveillance. The chapter concludes with a brief review of proposals how to reduce them.


  • Pre-publication version also available at SSRN.

    International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. These countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union (EU) and the standards of the Council of Europe, among others. This article explores the nexus between the democratic transformation of the media and international media assistance (IMA) as constrained by the local political conditions in the five countries of the Western Balkans. It aims to enhance the understanding of conditions and factors that influence media institution building in the region and evaluates the role of international assistance programs and conditionality mechanisms herein.

    The cross-national analysis concludes that the effects of IMA are highly constrained by the local context. A decade of IMA of varying intensity is not sufficient to construct media institutions when, in order to function properly, they have to outperform their local context. From today’s vantage point it becomes obvious, that in the short-term scaling-up IMA does not necessarily improve outcomes. The experiences in the region suggest that imported solutions have not been sufficiently cognitive of all aspects of local conditions and international strategies have tended to be rather schematic and have lacked strategic approaches to promote media policy stability, credible media reform and implementation. To a certain extent, the loss of IMA effectiveness is also self-inflicted.


  • C-387/12

    Internationale bevoegdheid rechter bij grensoverschrijdende inbreuk auteursrecht. EEX-Verordening (EG) nr. 44/2001. Bepaling van plaats waar schadebrengende feit zich heeft voorgedaan. Plaats van intreden beweerde schade.


  • Vordering wapperverbod. Software door auteurs in meerdere landen gemaakt. Internationaal privaatrecht. Conflictregel. Vraag aan wie auteursrechten toekomen beheerst door recht van elk land waarvoor bescherming wordt ingeroepen (lex protectionis).


  • Column, 28 oktober 2014.


  • Draft chapter for the book 'Nudging and the Law - What can EU Law learn from Behavioural Sciences?', editors A-L. Sibony & A. Alemanno, Hart Publishing.

    This chapter examines the policy implications of behavioural sciences insights for the regulation of privacy on the Internet, by focusing in particular on behavioural targeting. This marketing technique involves tracking people’s online behaviour to use the collected information to show people individually targeted advertisements. Enforcing data protection law may not be enough to protect privacy in this area. I argue that, if society is better off when certain behavioural targeting practices do not happen, policymakers should consider banning them.


  • In this note we discuss the controversial judgment in Google Spain v. González of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Our focus is on the judgment’s implications for freedom of expression. First, the facts of the case and the CJEU’s judgment are summarised. We then argue that the CJEU did not give enough attention to the right to freedom of expression. By seeing a search engine operator as a controller regarding the processing of personal data on third party web pages, the CJEU assigns the operator the delicate task of balancing the fundamental rights at stake. However, such an operator may not be the most appropriate party to balance the rights of all involved parties, in particular in cases where such a balance is hard to strike. Furthermore, it is a departure from human rights doctrine that according to the CJEU privacy and data protection rights override, “as a rule”, the public’s right to receive information. In addition, after the judgement it has become unclear whether search engine operators have a legal basis for indexing websites that contain special categories of data. We also discuss steps taken by Google to comply with the judgment.


  • Uitspraak van de maand: HvJEU, Y.S. en M. en S. tegen Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel, C-141/12 en C-372/12.


  • In Europa zijn globaal drie regimes van toepassing op de aansprakelijkheid van internetintermediairs voor privacyschendingen begaan door hun gebruikers via hun netwerk. Dit zijn de e-commercerichtlijn, die providers onder bepaalde voorwaarden uitsluit van aansprakelijkheid, de Richtlijn bescherming persoonsgegevens, die providers die actief persoonsgegevens verwerken tal van plichten en verantwoordelijkheden oplegt, en de in het EVRM vervatte vrijheid van meningsuiting, die internetproviders onder voorwaarden bepaalde privileges en vrijheden toekent. Deze stelsels zijn ieder op een eigen gebied van toepassing, maar kennen ook een gedeeltelijke overlap, terwijl ze elk een geheel eigen ration en beschermingsregime kennen. In de praktijk brengt dit rechtsongelijkheid en onzekerheid met zich mee, voornamelijk voor providers die actief betrokken zijn bij de inrichting van online platforms.


  • Currently under discussion is the European Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation, which will replace the Data Protection Directive from 1995 over time.
    The Regulation proposes introducing a number of specific obligations and rights in order to protect the interests of citizens and consumers and provides far-reaching powers for governmental agencies to enforce these rules.
    However, this is directly against the original purpose of and rationale behind data protection rules and, moreover, an increased emphasis on consumer interests and rights to control personal data seems like an inadequate tool for solving the current problems involved with Big Data.


  • De juridische status van omroepprogrammagegevens is voorwerp van een al van voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog daterende strijd tussen publieke omroepen en nieuwsmedia. Kunnen die omroepen het nieuwsmedia verbieden om de omroepgegevens volledig en op wekelijkse basis af te drukken? De uitspraak van het Europese Hof van Justitie in Football Dataco maakt het niet langer mogelijk dat de omroepen een beroep deden op de zogenaamde geschriftenbescherming. In de hier geannoteerde zaak ontzegt het Amsterdamse Hof de omroeporganisaties een beroep op hun auteursrecht. Zelfs als, aldus het Hof, het in elkaar zetten van omroepprogramma's een creatief proces zou zijn, beschermd door het auteursrecht, dan nog zou de weergave van dat proces in een lijst van programmagegevens niet zijn beschermd. De annotator is het niet eens met die redenering. Wanneer het maken van programma's auteursrechtelijk beschermd is, kan de maker immers de weergave daarvan verbieden op grond van zijn verveelvoudigingssrecht. De juiste vraag zou zijn geweest of er wel een auteursrechtelijke prestatie aanwezig is bij het maken van omroepprogramma's. Gegeven de hedendaagse strakke wettelijke inkadering van die programma's lijkt er weinig ruimte voor de auteursrechtelijk vereiste creativiteit.


  • Forthcoming in International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC), 2015.

    Private copying is one of the most contested areas of EU copyright law. This paper surveys that nebulous area and examines the issue of copies made from unlawful sources in light of the ECJ’s ACI Adam decision. After describing the legal background of copyright levies and the facts of the litigation, the paper scrutinizes the Advocate General’s Opinion and the Court’s decision. The latter is analyzed against the history of copyright levies, the ECJ’s extensive case-law on the private copying limitation and Member States’ regulation of unlawful sources. This paper further reflects on the decision’s implications for end-users, rights holders, collective management organizations and manufacturers/importers of levied goods. It concludes that, from a legal and economic standpoint, the decision not only fails to be properly justified, but its consequences will likely diverge from those anticipated by the Court. Most worrisome is the Court’s stance on the three-step test, which it views as a restrictive, rather than enabling, clause. In its interpretation of the test, the decision fails to strike the necessary balance between competing rights and interests. This is due to multiple factors: overreliance on the principle of strict interpretation; failure to consider the fundamental right of privacy; lack of justification of the normative and empirical elements of the test’s second condition; and a disregard for the remuneration element in connection with the test’s third condition. To the contrary, it is argued that a flexible construction of the three-step test is more suited to the Infosoc Directive’s balancing aims.


  • 1 October 2014

    On 2-4 July 2014 Information Influx, the 25th anniversary conference of the Institute for Information Law (IViR) was held in Amsterdam. Integrated in the conference, on Friday, 4 July a panel entitled “Legalizing file-sharing: an idea whose time has come – or gone?” met.
    The panel’s moderator was Professor Bernt Hugenholtz (University of Amsterdam, IViR) and the panelists were scholars with groundbreaking research on the topic for the past decade: Professor Neil Netanel (University of California, Los Angeles), Professor Alexander Peukert (University of Frankfurt), Dr. Philippe Aigrain (La Quadrature du Net), Professor Séverine Dusollier (SciencesPo./École de droit).
    The panel was divided into four parts, which this report reflects. First, the moderator introduced the topic and the panelists. Second, IViR member Mr. Balázs Bodó offered a short presentation of an ongoing research project on the topic of debate. Third, each panelist commented on the topic from different perspectives. The panel discussion was then opened for comments from the audience and responses from the panel.


  • LAPSI/Openlaws workshop, 4 September 2014.

    The EC funded project and the LAPSI thematic network project joined forces for a workshop on open legal data for Europe. About 25 participants from academia, government, business and civil society discussed whtat the drivers are for opening up legal data for re-use in different jurisdictions and what barriers (perceived or real) exist. The outcome of the discussion will feed into the on-going work in the LAPSI network on legal barriers to re-use, and in the vision for Big Open Legal Data that will be developed as part of


  • Auteursrechtdebat 14 oktober 2014, IEF 14277.


  • Met medewerking van Nico van Eijk.

    In 2012 hebben SEO Economisch Onderzoek en het Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR) een methodiek ontwikkeld om uit de uitkomst van de multibandveiling een prijs te berekenen voor tijdelijke verlenging van de vergunningen in de 900 en 1800 MHz-band. In die multibandveiling is onder andere 2×10 MHz spectrum geveild in de 2,1 GHz-band. Het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft het IViR gevraagd in hoeverre de eerder ontwikkelde methodiek, en daarmee samenhangend de informatie over geboden prijzen toen, de basis kunnen vormen voor een verlengingsprijs in geval de 2,1 GHz-vergunningen tijdelijk worden verlengd.  Deze notitie geeft antwoord op die vraag.

    Zie ook:


  • Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 7 maart 2014 Prof. mr. E.J. Dommering

    NJ,  2014-40, nr. 379,  p. 4816-4818.

    Klacht over een column in NJB van een Advocaat-Generaal bij de Hoge Raad, redacteur van NJB, over mensenrechtschendingen in Rusland in verband met de onteigening van het olieconcern Yukos. Deze column zou de onafhankelijkheid van de rechterlijke macht schaden, omdat over deze onteigeningen ten tijde van de column procedures in Nederland liepen. De klacht op grond van artikel 13a RO wordt afgewezen, omdat dit een te vergaande beperking van de vrijheid van meningsuiting van een lid van de rechterlijke macht zou zijn.


  • Begin 2014 was de bibliotheek prominent in het nieuws. Zo verdween een groot aantal bibliotheekvestigingen en werd een e-booksplatform gelanceerd. Ook ging een wetsvoorstel met plannen voor een landelijke digitale bibliotheek naar de Tweede Kamer. Het auteursrecht is buiten het voorstel gehouden, terwijl digitale bibliotheekactiviteiten wel degelijk raken aan het auteursrecht. Wat zijn de auteursrechtelijke implicaties van de nieuwe Bibliotheekwet?


  • Column, 30 september 2014.


  • Security Collapse in the HTTPS Market Mr. A.M. Arnbak , Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk , & H. Asghari, M. van Eeten

    Communications of the ACM,  2014-10, p. 47-55.

    Also published in: ACM Queue - Security, 2014-8, vol. 12.

    HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) has evolved into the de facto standard for secure Web browsing. However, widely reported security incidents—such as DigiNotar's breach, Apple's #gotofail, and OpenSSL's Heartbleed—have exposed systemic security vulnerabilities of HTTPS to a global audience. The Edward Snowden revelations—notably around operation BULLRUN, MUSCULAR, and the lesser-known FLYING PIG program to query certificate metadata on a dragnet scale—have driven the point home that HTTPS is both a major target of government hacking and eavesdropping, as well as an effective measure against dragnet content surveillance when Internet traffic traverses global networks. HTTPS, in short, is an absolutely critical but fundamentally flawed cybersecurity technology.

    To evaluate both legal and technological solutions to augment the security of HTTPS, our article argues that an understanding of the economic incentives of the stakeholders in the HTTPS ecosystem, most notably the CAs, is essential. We outlines the systemic vulnerabilities of HTTPS, maps the thriving market for certificates, and analyzes the suggested regulatory and technological solutions on both sides of the Atlantic. The findings show existing yet surprising market patterns and perverse incentives: not unlike the financial sector, the HTTPS market is full of information asymmetries and negative externalities, as a handful of CAs dominate the market and have become "too big to fail." Unfortunately, proposed E.U. legislation will reinforce systemic vulnerabilities, and the proposed technological solutions that mostly originate in the U.S. are far from being adopted at scale. The systemic vulnerabilities in this crucial technology are likely to persist for years to come.


  • Interview, 11  augustus 2014.


  • Inaugural lecture, 19 September 2014.

    In the digital media environment user attention is scarce and competition for ‘eyeballs’ is fierce. Profiling and targeting users with customized news and advertisements is widely seen as a solution, and part of a larger trend to invest in what the New York Times has called ‘smart new strategies for growing our audience’. The shift from public information intermediary to personal information service creates new dynamics but also new imbalances in the relationship between the media and their users. In my inaugural speech I will state that to restore the balance, the media and regulators in Brussels and The Hague need to develop a vision of how to deal with issues such as media user privacy, editorial integrity and more generally ‘fair algorithmic media practices’."


  • Het jurisprudentieonderzoek dat ten grondslag ligt aan dit artikel is hier te downloaden.

    De proceskostenveroordeling in IE-zaken veroorzaakt in de praktijk de nodige onrust, onzekerheid en frustratie. De rechterlijke macht heeft weliswaar indicatietarieven voor IE-zaken opgesteld, maar in de praktijk leggen rechters deze tarieven soms naast zich neer, zonder die beslissing altijd met duidelijke redenen te omkleden. Dit artikel beoogt meer inzicht te geven in de toepassing van de indicatietarieven en het proceskostenrisico in IE-zaken. Daartoe wordt empirisch onderzocht wanneer en op welke manier de indicatietarieven door rechters worden toegepast en om welke redenen deze tarieven in individuele gevallen juist niet worden nagevolgd.


  • This paper presents a methodology for setting fees for the renewal or extension of spectrum licences, by using the outcome of an auction for comparable licences but with a different licence period. The methodology is a combination of market and cash flow valuation and consists of two main steps. First, prices for spectrum corresponding to that of the licences to be extended are derived from the auction outcome. Second, the relative value addition of the extension period for the new licensee, compared to the value of the licences auctioned, is derived by using a model for the development of EBITDA for an operator over time. A combination of these two is used to calculate fees that match the opportunity costs of extension. Thus, optimum alignment is achieved with the policy objective of using licence fees only to promote efficient use of spectrum, while avoiding state aid at the same time.


  • Presentation at the 9th Annual Conference of the EPIP Association, Brussels, 4 September 2014.


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