Algorithms Off-limits? If digital trade law restricts access to source code of software then accountability will suffer external link

2022

Abstract

Free trade agreements are increasingly used to construct an additional layer of protection for source code of software. This comes in the shape of a new prohibition for governments to require access to, or transfer of, source code of software, subject to certain exceptions. A clause on software source code is also part and parcel of an ambitious set of new rules on trade-related aspects of electronic commerce currently negotiated by 86 members of the World Trade Organization. Our understanding to date of how such a commitment inside trade law impacts on governments right to regulate digital technologies and the policy space that is allowed under trade law is limited. Access to software source code is for example necessary to meet regulatory and judicial needs in order to ensure that digital technologies are in conformity with individuals’ human rights and societal values. This article will analyze the implications of such a source code clause for current and future digital policies by governments that aim to ensure transparency, fairness and accountability of computer and machine learning algorithms.

accountability, algorithms, application programming interfaces, auditability, Digital trade, fairness, frontpage, source code, Transparency

Bibtex

Article{Irion2022b, title = {Algorithms Off-limits? If digital trade law restricts access to source code of software then accountability will suffer}, author = {Irion, K.}, url = {https://www.ivir.nl/facct22-125-2/}, year = {0617}, date = {2022-06-17}, abstract = {Free trade agreements are increasingly used to construct an additional layer of protection for source code of software. This comes in the shape of a new prohibition for governments to require access to, or transfer of, source code of software, subject to certain exceptions. A clause on software source code is also part and parcel of an ambitious set of new rules on trade-related aspects of electronic commerce currently negotiated by 86 members of the World Trade Organization. Our understanding to date of how such a commitment inside trade law impacts on governments right to regulate digital technologies and the policy space that is allowed under trade law is limited. Access to software source code is for example necessary to meet regulatory and judicial needs in order to ensure that digital technologies are in conformity with individuals’ human rights and societal values. This article will analyze the implications of such a source code clause for current and future digital policies by governments that aim to ensure transparency, fairness and accountability of computer and machine learning algorithms.}, keywords = {accountability, algorithms, application programming interfaces, auditability, Digital trade, fairness, frontpage, source code, Transparency}, }

Pitching trade against privacy: reconciling EU governance of personal data flows with external trade external link

International Data Privacy Law, vol. 10, num: 3, pp: 201-221, 2020

Abstract

This article positions EU’s external governance of personal data flows against the backdrop of the international controversy on digital trade versus strict privacy laws. Now that the EU has defined its position on horizontal provisions on cross-border data flows and personal data protection, it is both timely and essential to reassess its strategy on the international transfers of personal data in the purview of its future trade agreements. For its own normative approach and regulatory autonomy, the EU has a pivotal role to play in shaping the interface between trade and privacy before the ‘free trade leviathan’ can restrict the policy choices not only of individual states but also of the EU itself. Our contribution aims to break through the present compartmentalization of privacy scholarship and trade lawyers because it situates personal data flows in both disciplines.

Cross-border data flow, Digital trade, EU law, frontpage, GDPR, international trade law, Personal data, Privacy

Bibtex

Article{Irion2020bb, title = {Pitching trade against privacy: reconciling EU governance of personal data flows with external trade}, author = {Irion, K. and Yakovleva, S.}, doi = {https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/idpl/ipaa003}, year = {0401}, date = {2020-04-01}, journal = {International Data Privacy Law}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {201-221}, abstract = {This article positions EU’s external governance of personal data flows against the backdrop of the international controversy on digital trade versus strict privacy laws. Now that the EU has defined its position on horizontal provisions on cross-border data flows and personal data protection, it is both timely and essential to reassess its strategy on the international transfers of personal data in the purview of its future trade agreements. For its own normative approach and regulatory autonomy, the EU has a pivotal role to play in shaping the interface between trade and privacy before the ‘free trade leviathan’ can restrict the policy choices not only of individual states but also of the EU itself. Our contribution aims to break through the present compartmentalization of privacy scholarship and trade lawyers because it situates personal data flows in both disciplines.}, keywords = {Cross-border data flow, Digital trade, EU law, frontpage, GDPR, international trade law, Personal data, Privacy}, }