Research master student
| Kostić, B., McGonagle, T.|
How Social are New and Social Media for National Minorities? Perspectives from the FCNM
In: European Yearbook of Minority Issues, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3-33, 2019.
Understanding the transformation of digital communication gives important insights into how new media, including social media, affect the ability of persons belonging to national minorities to exercise their rights to freedom of expression and participation in society. Thus, the new media ecosystem calls for greater attention for minority-related issues. The Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (ACFC) has already observed that the media ecosystem is increasingly used for the expression of intolerance and hostility towards minorities, but that it also provides them with valuable expressive opportunities. This article starts with an analysis of how the advent and growing dominance of social media are causing farreaching changes in how we communicate in the new media ecosystem. The potential and drawbacks of new and social media for national minorities is the next focus. The article then analyses the ACFC’s monitoring work regarding new and social media. The article’s conclusions are supplemented by a set of recommendations that may guide the ACFC’s future monitoring work on relevant issues.
| Fahy, R., Hanhart, M., Klus, M., Kostić, B., McGonagle, T., Plaizier, C.|
Open Journalism: The Road Travelled and the Road Ahead
2018, (Vienna, OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, 2018.).
| Kostić, B., Vargas Penagos, E.|
The freely given consent and the "bundling" provision under the GDPR
In: Computerrecht, vol. 2017, no. 4, pp. 217-222, 2017.
Under European data protection law, consent of the data subject is one of the six grounds for lawful processing of personal data. It is such an important ground that lawmakers considered it necessary to provide a legal definition of consent. One of the conditions under this definition is that it needs to be “freely given.” The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3 has further expanded on this concept in Article 7(4). It refers to a situation under which consent might not be considered “freely given.” If consent is invalid because it is not freely given, the processing is usually unlawful. Consequently, a legal basis for processing is missing. Therefore, this is an important provision. Yet the wording of this new provision is vague and its scope is unclear. Thus, the question arises as to how Article 7(4) should be applied. In this paper, the authors tease out the assessment criteria for the application of this provision on the basis of its text, structure and history. These criteria will then be applied to hypothetical cases in the final section.