The European Harmonisation of Intermediairy Civil Liability for Online Copyright Infringement

With the adoption and subsequent national implementation of the E-Commerce Directive’s safe harbour regime, the architecture set up for intermediary liability in Europe has become two-tiered: at a first stage, it is necessary to examine whether a given intermediary attracts, in its pursuit of a certain activity, civil liability according to the standards ensconced in the Member States’ legislation and only then, in the second instance, must the inapplicability of any immunity be established. As a result, although it provides a veneer of approximation by immunising intermediaries under certain circumscribed conditions, the Directive does not harmonise the underlying substantive liability norms which determine whether the safe harbours will be necessary or redundant. This leaves ample room for national divergences, particularly as concerns new types of intermediaries whose eligibility for the existing safe harbours is uncertain.  

This PhD research seeks to explore the liability in Europe of online intermediaries for secondary or indirect copyright infringement, i.e. where the material act of infringement is committed by a third party, regardless of the applicability of the safe harbour regime. It will therefore begin with an investigation of the current law relating to intermediary liability for copyright infringement in the legal jurisdictions of England, France and Germany, these three jurisdictions representing each of the three major European extra-contractual liability traditions. The relationship between these rules and national substantive tort principles in the selected countries will subsequently be examined. This shall be done with a view to uncovering common European tort principles that can potentially lead the way to a harmonised, clear and comprehensive European liability regime of intermediaries for copyright infringement.

Publications

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Irion, K.

Panta rhei: A European Perspective on Ensuring a High-Level of Protection of Digital Human Rights in a World in Which Everything Flows Journal Article

In: Amsterdam Law School Research Paper No. 2020, no. 38, 2020.

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Hugenholtz, P.; Quintais, J.; Gervais, D. J.; Hartmann, C.; Allan, J.

Trends and Developments in Artificial Intelligence: Challenges to the Intellectual Property Rights Framework: Final Report Technical Report

2020, (Report written for the European Commission by P.B. Hugenholtz, D. Gervais, J.P. Quintais, C. Hartmann & J. Allan, completed September 2020. ISBN: 97892762244488).

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Senftleben, M.

Intermediary Liability and Trade Mark Infringement - Proliferation of Filter Obligations in Civil Law Jurisdictions? Book Chapter

In: pp. 381-403, 2020, (Chapter in: Oxford Handbook of Online Intermediary Liability, G.F. Frosio (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.).

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Senftleben, M.

Signs Eligible for Trademark Protection - Dysfunctional Incentives and a Functionality Dilemma in the EU Book Chapter

In: pp. 209-225, 2020, (Chapter in: Cambridge Handbook on International and Comparative Trademark Law, I. Calboli & J.C. Ginsburg (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2020.).

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Quintais, J.

CIPIL Evening Webinar: 'Article 17 and the New EU Rules on Content-Sharing Platforms' Online

2020.

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Senftleben, M.

The Copyright/Trademark Interface: How the Expansion of Trademark Protection Is Stifling Cultural Creativity Book

Kluwer Law International, 2020, ISBN: 9789403523705.

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van Hoboken, J.; Appelman, N.; van Duin, A.; Blom, T.; Zarouali, B.; Fahy, R.; Steel, M.; Stringhi, E.; Helberger, N.

WODC-onderzoek: Voorziening voor verzoeken tot snelle verwijdering van onrechtmatige online content Technical Report

2020.

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Keller, P.

CJEU hearing in the Polish challenge to Article 17: Not even the supporters of the provision agree on how it should work Journal Article

In: Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Rb. Den Haag 5 februari 2020 (NJCM c.s. / Staat der Nederlanden - SyRI-wetgeving) Journal Article

In: Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, no. 45, pp. 6792-6795, 2020.

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Drunen, M. van; Ausloos, J.; Appelman, N.; Helberger, N.

News Recommenders and Cooperative Explainability: Confronting the contextual complexity in AI explanations Technical Report

2020.

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van Gompel, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Poort, J.; Schumacher, L. D.; Visser, D.

Evaluatie Wet Auteurscontractenrecht: Eindrapport Technical Report

2020.

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Fahy, R.; Appelman, N.

Netherlands/Research Book Chapter

In: pp. 164-175, 2020, (Chapter in: Report Automating Society 2020, Chiusi, F., Fischer, S., Kayser-Bril, N. & Spielkamp, M. eds., Berlin: AlgorithmWatch, October 2020.).

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Senftleben, M.; Angelopoulos, C.

The Odyssey of the Prohibition on General Monitoring Obligations on the Way to the Digital Services Act: Between Article 15 of the E-Commerce Directive and Article 17 of the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market Technical Report

2020, (Amsterdam: Institute for Information Law & Cambridge: Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Law).

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Hugenholtz, P.

Annotatie bij HvJ EU 29 juli 2019, C-469/17 (Funke), C-516/17 (Spiegel) & C-4476/17 (Pelham) Journal Article

In: Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, no. 43, pp. 6068-6073, 2020.

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Senftleben, M.

Institutionalized Algorithmic Enforcement - The Pros and Cons of the EU Approach to UGC Platform Liability Journal Article

In: Florida International University Law Review, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 299-328, 2020.

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Strycharz, J.; Ausloos, J.; Helberger, N.

Data Protection or Data Frustration? Individual perceptions and attitudes towards the GDPR Journal Article

In: European Data Protection Law Review, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 407-421, 2020.

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Menezes Cwajg, C.; Ausloos, J.; Leerssen, P.

Transparency Rules in Online Political Advertising: Mapping Global Law and Policy Technical Report

2020, (This report has been prepared by Carolina Menezes Cwajg. It was written under the academic guidance of Dr. Jef Ausloos and Paddy Leerssen, at IViR and the Information, Communication & the Data Society (ICDS) Initiative at the University of Amsterdam.).

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Senftleben, M.; Buijtelaar, L. D.

Robot Creativity: An Incentive-Based Neighbouring Rights Approach Journal Article Forthcoming

In: European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 42, no. 12, Forthcoming.

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Yakovleva, S.

Privacy and Data Protection in the EU- and US-led Post- WTO Free Trade Agreements Book Chapter

In: pp. 95-115, 2020, (Chapter in: Coherence and Divergence in Services Trade Law, ed. R.T. Hoffmann & M. Krajewski).

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Yakovleva, S.

Personal Data Transfers in International Trade and EU Law: A Tale of Two ‘Necessities’ Journal Article

In: The Journal of World Investment & Trade, pp. 1-39, 2020.

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Yakovleva, S.; Geursen, W.; Arnbak, A.

Kaleidoscopic data-related enforcement in the digital age Journal Article

In: Common Market Law Review, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1461-1494, 2020.

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Hugenholtz, P.

De kunstmatige maker: over de gevolgen van het Endstra-arrest voor de bescherming van artificiële creaties Journal Article

In: Intellectuele Eigendom & Reclamerecht (IER), no. 5, pp. 276-280, 2020.

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Husovec, M.; Quintais, J.

How to License Article 17? Exploring the Implementation Options for the New EU Rules on Content-Sharing Platforms Journal Article

In: 2020.

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Cobbe, J.; Seng Ah Lee, M.; Singh, J.; Janssen, H.

Centering the Law in the Digital State Journal Article

In: Computer, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 47-58, 2020.

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Helberger, N.; Araujo, T.; Vreese, C. H. de

Who is the fairest of them all? Public attitudes and expectations regarding automated decision-making Journal Article

In: Computer Law & Security Review, vol. 39, 2020.

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Eskens, S.; Mil, J. van

Opinie: Doorsturen telecomdata naar RIVM vereist een beter verhaal Journal Article

In: Het Financieele Dagblad, 2020.

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Helberger, N.; Huh, J.; Milne, G.; Strycharz, J.

Macro and Exogenous Factors in Computational Advertising: Key Issues and New Research Directions Journal Article

In: Journal of Advertising, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 377-393, 2020.

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Helberger, N.; Eskens, S.

Opinie: corona-app vraagt om meer toezicht op grote techbedrijven Journal Article

In: De Volkskrant, 2020.

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Hins, A.

Order, Order! Vijf misverstanden rond Brexit Book Chapter

In: 2020, (In: "Als je precies leest...Vriendenbundel Derk Bunschoten", P. Bovend'Eert, H. Broeksteeg & R. de Jong (red.), Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers 2020, p. 69-75.).

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Appelman, N.; Fahy, R.

Netherlands Book Chapter

In: 2020, (Chapter in: F. Chiusi, S. Fischer, & M. Spielkamp (eds.), Automated Decision-Making Systems in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A European Perspective, AlgorithmWatch, 2020).

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Husovec, M.; Quintais, J.

Article 17 of the Copyright Directive: Why the German implementation proposal is compatible with EU law – Part 2 Journal Article

In: Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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Cooper Dreyfuss, R.; van Eechoud, M.

Choice of Law in EU Trade Secrecy Cases Book Chapter

In: Chapter 10, pp. 171-191, 2020.

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Rougoor, W.; Tieben, B.; Poort, J.

Reserveprijs veiling DAB+-laag 7 Technical Report

2020, (Rapport in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken en Klimaat, SEO Economisch Onderzoek, mei 2020. ISBN 9789052200675.).

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Appelman, N.; Toh, J.; Fahy, R.; van Hoboken, J.

Techno-optimism and solutionism as a crisis response Book Chapter

In: 2020, (Chapter in L. Taylor, G. Sharma, A. Martin, and S. Jameson (eds.), Data Justice and COVID-19: Global Perspectives, Meatspace Press, 2020)).

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Eskens, S.

Opinie: De wettelijke mogelijkheden voor online proctoring door universiteiten zijn zeer beperkt Journal Article

In: Tijdschrift voor Internetrecht, no. 4, pp. 141-143, 2020.

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Husovec, M.; Quintais, J.

Article 17 of the Copyright Directive: Why the German implementation proposal is compatible with EU law – Part 1 Journal Article

In: Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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McGonagle, T.; Fahy, R.; Bouchè, G.; Rucz, M.; Stapel, S.; Seel, M.; A Sangen, van der

Safety of journalists and the fighting of corruption in the EU Technical Report

2020, (Prof. dr. T. McGonagle - Project Leader - European Parliament - Policy Department for Citizen's Rights and Constitutional Affairs - Directorate-General for Internal Policies - July 2020).

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Drunen, M. van

The post-editorial control era: how EU media law matches platforms’ organisational control with cooperative responsibility Journal Article

In: Journal of Media Law, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 166-190, 2020.

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Irion, K.

Schrems II and Surveillance: Third Countries’ National Security Powers in the Purview of EU Law, European Law Blog Online

2020.

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Hugenholtz, P.

Annotatie bij Rb Amsterdam 1 november 2019 (Van Uem / De Persgroep) Journal Article

In: AMI, no. 3-4, pp. 101-105, 2020.

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Buijtelaar, L. D.; Senftleben, M.

Auteursrecht op robotcreaties? Een analyse op basis van de incentivetheorie Journal Article

In: AMI, no. 3-4, pp. 77-93, 2020.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie HvJ EU 2 oktober 2018 (Ministerio Fiscal) Journal Article

In: Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, no. 28, pp. 3753-3754, 2020.

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Volgenant, O.; McGonagle, T.

Kroniek Persrecht 2019 Journal Article

In: Mediaforum, vol. 2020, no. 3, pp. 87-89, 2020.

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Mahieu, R.; Ausloos, J.

Harnessing the collective potential of GDPR access rights: towards an ecology of transparency Journal Article

In: Internet Policy Review, 2020, (Opinion).

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Bodó, B.

Mediated trust: A theoretical framework to address the trustworthiness of technological trust mediators Journal Article

In: New Media & Society, 2020.

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Helberger, N.; Bernstein, A.; Schulz, W.; Vreese, C. H. de

Challenging rabbit holes: towards more diversity in news recommendation systems Journal Article

In: LSE Media Blog, 2020.

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Helberger, N.

The Political Power of Platforms: How Current Attempts to Regulate Misinformation Amplify Opinion Power Journal Article

In: Digital Journalism, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 842-854, 2020.

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Keller, P.

Hungary’s fast tracked implementation of Article 5 CDSM directive in response to the pandemic Journal Article

In: Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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Ausloos, J.

Technologiereuzen moeten zeggen hoe ze ons gedrag bepalen en zo dwingen we dat af Journal Article

In: 2020, (Opinie).

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Ausloos, J.; Leerssen, P.; Thije, P. ten

Operationalizing Research Access in Platform Governance: What to learn from other industries? Technical Report

2020.

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