Privacy as Virtue: towards an actor based approach to privacy regulation

This research focuses on the criticism of the contemporary legal privacy paradigm regarding two points: (1) It is based on the individual right of a legal subject, and (2) this individual right refers to the personal (non-public) interests of that legal subject. An ethical perspective will help to understand the critique and to provide for an alternative, virtue-based approach to privacy regulation. This approach (1) refers to the responsibilities of the actor of a privacy violation and (2) judges his actions on their own merits (that is, virtuousness), without referring to the interests of the legal subject.

Traditionally, the legal privacy paradigm is focused on the individual in two ways. First, both in juridical doctrine and in jurisprudence, privacy is predominantly regarded as a subjective right: It gives the legal subject control over his personal data and allows him to enter a legal dispute when this right is violated. Second, privacy is usually not regarded as having an intrinsic value, but is evaluated in relation to achieving other, individual interests, such as autonomy , negative freedom and dignity.

In a world where information flows steadily become bigger and more complex, this individual based paradigm is increasingly criticized on two grounds. (1) Since privacy is a subjective right, the legal subject must substantiate his specific, legitimate interest in a legal dispute. Thus, it has to be plausible to a judge that the subject’s right to privacy is violated by a specific practice, or that it is likely that this will occur. (1a) However, with the emergence of registration techniques, the legal subject is often unaware that his behavior is monitored in the first place. (1b) Registered and stored data are often analyzed by generic data mining rules and algorithms, which harvest large databases and create aggregated data and group profiles. It is difficult to pinpoint the specific individual aspect and interest in this process. (1c) Specific to the right to privacy is that even when a legal dispute is won, the damage is often already done and irreparable.

(2) Like privacy, privacy violations are usually seen as instrumental to achieving certain values. For example, the state’s close monitoring of the behavior of citizens is often legitimized as being necessary in relation to security policies (Foucault; Scott). Since societal values relating to for example security are often seen as higher or as more important than individual values relating to autonomy, dignity, or freedom, privacy is often outweighed by other interests both in the process of law making and in judicial decision making.

A virtue-based approach to privacy regulation will not balance public interests with individual claims to privacy, but assess whether an actor has lived up to his responsibility to act in a virtuous manner. While the current legal paradigm (1) is based on the individual right of a legal subject, and (2) this individual right refers to the personal (non-public) interests of that legal subject, a virtue-based approach to privacy regulation (1) refers to the responsibilities of the actor of a privacy violation and (2) judges his actions on their own merits (that is, virtuousness), without referring directly to the specific interests of the legal subject. The envisaged benefit of a virtue-based approach is that actors could be evaluated and judged even without the right or interest of a specific legal subject being violated. This facilitates pre-emptive action against future privacy violations and could offer a satisfying alternative for situations in which it is difficult to pinpoint specific individual interests (e.g. with regard to generic data mining rules and algorithms which harvest large databases and create aggregated data and group profiles). Both could prove indispensable in a world where information flows steadily become bigger and more complex.

To develop this approach, first, the juridical framework and its critics are discussed. Second, an ethical perspective will be provided to interpret the criticism and to offer an alternative approach to privacy regulation. Third, this alternative, virtue-based approach will be analyzed and further developed in legal terms; a case study regarding state surveillance will be provided to analyze the possible pros and cons of a virtue-based approach to privacy regulation. The hypothesis is that a virtue-based approach will be able to overcome the current critique of the legal privacy paradigm. The study will principally focus on the relationship between the state and the citizen, that is the relationship that in legal terms is predominantly covered by constitutional law, in the European context.

Publications

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Kostić, B., McGonagle, T.

How Social are New and Social Media for National Minorities? Perspectives from the FCNM

European Yearbook of Minority Issues, 16 (1), pp. 3-33, 2019.

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Poort, J., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

Prijsdiscriminatie, privacy en publieke opinie

Ars Aequi, 2019 , pp. 580-590, 2019.

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Helberger, N., Makhortykh, M., Möller, J.

Filter bubbles in the Netherlands

2019, (Report commissioned by the Dutch Media Authority (Commissariaat voor de Media)).

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Giannopoulou, A.

The New Copyright Directive: Article 14 or when the Public Domain Enters the New Copyright Directive

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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Helberger, N.

On the Democratic Role of News Recommenders

Digital Journalism, 2019.

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Albrecht, Y., Bockxmeer, H. van, Dibbits, T., Helberger, N., Kasem, I., Oudeman, M., Vanseveren, W., Vermeir, L.

Samen voor het publiek belang. Evaluatierapport NPO 2013 t/m 2017

2019.

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van Gompel, S.

Light Bulb

C. op den Kamp & D. Hunter, (Ed.): A History of Intellectual Property in 50 Objects, 2019 , Chapter 12, pp. 104-111, Cambridge University Press, 2019, ISBN: 9781108325806.

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Fahy, R., Voorhoof, D.

Article 10 ECHR and Expressive Conduct

Communications Law, 24 (2), pp. 62-73, 2019, (Pre-print).

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Bodó, B., Handke, C.W., Quintais, J., Vallbé, J.

Knocking on Heaven’s Door: User preferences on digital cultural distribution

Internet Policy Review, 8 (2), 2019.

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Bodó, B.

Selling News to Audiences – A Qualitative Inquiry into the Emerging Logics of Algorithmic News Personalization in European Quality News Media

Digital Journalism, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 26 juni 2018

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (25), pp. 3503-3504, 2019.

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Quintais, J.

The New Copyright Directive: A tour d’horizon – Part II (of press publishers, upload filters and the real value gap)

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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Fahy, R.

The Chilling Effect of Turkey’s Article 301 Insult Law

European Human Rights Law Review , 2019 (3), pp. 298-308, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

De Europese informatierechtsorde

deLex, 2019, ISBN: 9789086920716 .

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Quintais, J.

The New Copyright Directive: A tour d’horizon – Part I

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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van Eijk, N.

Kroniek Telecommunicatierecht

KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi, 2019 (151), pp. 8866-8867, 2019.

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Drunen, M. van, Helberger, N., Leerssen, P.

Germany proposes Europe's first diversity rules for social media platforms

LSE Media Policy Project Blog, 2019 , 2019.

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Hugenholtz, P.

Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 6 oktober 2017 (Imation / Thuiskopie en Staat)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, 2019 (21/22), pp. 3068-3070, 2019.

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Harambam, J.

Overwegingen en advies vaccinatieproblematiek vanuit een antropologisch perspectief

2019 , pp. 39-42, 2019, (In: Hoe nu verder met de vaccinatietwijfel?: Tien adviezen aan Staatssecretaris Paul Blokhuis, red. Roland Pierik, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2019. ISBN 9789090317144.).

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Kabel, J.

Annotatie bij Hof Amsterdam 27 november 2018 (Nomenta / Nikki)

AMI, 2019 (2), pp. 72, 2019.

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van Eechoud, M.

Annotatie bij Rb. Den Haag 12 december 2018 (FPI Ghana / Koas c.s.)

AMI, 2019 (2), pp. 73-74, 2019.

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Gervais, D.J.

Can Machines be Authors?

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019 , 2019.

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Helberger, N., Makhortykh, M., Möller, J.

Filterbubbels in Nederland

2019, (Rapport in opdracht van het Commissariaat voor de Media.).

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van Daalen, O.

Óók soft- en hardware die niet uit China komen zijn notoir onveilig. Hacken is het probleem, niet Huawei

2019, (Opinie in de Volkskrant).

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McGonagle, T., Volgenant, O.

Persvrijheidsmonitor 2018

2019.

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McGonagle, T.

Annotatie bij EHRM 10 januari 2019 (Khadija Ismayilova / Azerbeidzjan)

European Human Rights Cases, 2019 (5), pp. 257-260, 2019.

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McGonagle, T.

Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie EU 14 februari 2019 (Buivids)

European Human Rights Cases, 2019 (5), pp. 253-255, 2019.

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van Hoboken, J.

The Proposed EU Terrorism Content Regulation: Analysis and Recommendations with Respect to Freedom of Expression Implications

2019.

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Heller, B., van Hoboken, J.

Freedom of Expression: A Comparative Summary of United States and European Law

2019.

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Jütte, B., Quintais, J.

Advocate General Turns down the Music - Sampling Is Not a Fundamental Right under EU Copyright Law

European Intellectual Property Review (forthcoming), 2019.

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Mil, J. van

German Federal Court of Justice asks CJEU if YouTube is directly liable for user-uploaded content

Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice , 14 (5), pp. 355-356, 2019.

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Bednarski, M., Coutinho, M.F., McGonagle, T., Zimin, A.

Preview: Elections and media in digital times

2019, (Preview of an In-Focus edition of the World Trends in Freedom and Expression and Media Development).

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Leerssen, P., Tworek, H.,

An Analysis of Germany's NetzDG Law

2019, ( First working paper of the Transatlantic High Level Working Group on Content Moderation Online and Freedom of Expression).

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van Eechoud, M.

Schriftelijke inbreng Rondetafelgesprek wijziging Handelsregisterwet

2019, (Vaste Commissie voor Economische Zaken en Klimaat, Tweede Kamer).

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Irion, K.

Third Annual Detlev F. Vagts Roundtable on Transnational Law: Data Protection in a Global World

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting - American Society of International Law, 112 , pp. 220-226, 2019.

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Ryngaert, C.M.J., van Eijk, N.

International cooperation by (European) security and intelligence services: reviewing the creation of a joint database in light of data protection guarantees

International Data Privacy Law, 2019 (1), pp. 61-73, 2019.

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Hugenholtz, P.

The WIPO Broadcasting Treaty. A Conceptual Conundrum

European Intellectual Property Review, 2019 (4), pp. 199-202, 2019, (This opinion is based on a keynote speech delivered at the KEI Seminar, "Appraising the WIPO Broadcast treaty and its Implications on Access to Culture", Geneva, 3-4 October 2018.).

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Til, G. van

Zelfregulering door online platforms: een waar wondermiddel tegen online desinformatie?

Mediaforum, 2019 (1), pp. 2-13, 2019.

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van Eechoud, M.

Wetsvoorstel open overheid nadert eindstreep

Mediaforum, 2019 (1), pp. 1, 2019.

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McGonagle, T.

Annotatie bij EHRM 4 december 2018 (Magyar Jeti Zrt / Hongarije)

European Human Rights Cases, 2019 (3), pp. 170-174, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij EHRM 28 juni 2018 (M.L. en W.W. / Duitsland)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, 2019 (12), pp. 1624-1626, 2019.

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Bodó, B.

The science of piracy, the piracy of science. Who are the science pirates and where do they come from: Part 2

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019 , 2019.

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Bodó, B., Dobber, T., Fahy, R., Irion, K., Kruikemeier, S., Möller, J., Stapel, S., Vreese, C.H. de, Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

Online politieke microtargeting: Een zegen of een vloek voor de democratie?

Nederlands Juristenblad (NJB), 2019 (10), pp. 528-669, 2019.

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van Eijk, N.

Kroniek Telecommunicatierecht

KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi, 2019 (150), pp. 8813-8814, 2019.

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Coche, E.

Heks'nkaas or the "Fifty Shades of Taste" Explained by the CJEU through EU Copyright Law

European Intellectual Property Review, 2019 (3), pp. 173-180, 2019.

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Delinavelli, G.

The EU Counterfeit & Piracy Watch List: political aims and legal challenges

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019 , 2019.

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Bodó, B.

The science of piracy, the piracy of science. Who are the science pirates and where do they come from: Part 1

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019 , 2019.

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van Gompel, S.

Smaak, auteursrecht en objectafbakening: over perceptie en bepaalbaarheid

AMI, 2019 (1), pp. 9-16, 2019.

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Hugenholtz, P.

Openbaarheid van tarieven en licentievoorwaarden van cbo’s

AMI, 2019 (1), pp. 1-8, 2019.

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van Eechoud, M.

Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 8 juni 2018 (Pearson)

AMI, 2019 (1), pp. 34-39, 2019.

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1913 entries « 1 of 39 »