Privacy as Virtue: towards an actor based approach to privacy regulation

This research focuses on the criticism of the contemporary legal privacy paradigm regarding two points: (1) It is based on the individual right of a legal subject, and (2) this individual right refers to the personal (non-public) interests of that legal subject. An ethical perspective will help to understand the critique and to provide for an alternative, virtue-based approach to privacy regulation. This approach (1) refers to the responsibilities of the actor of a privacy violation and (2) judges his actions on their own merits (that is, virtuousness), without referring to the interests of the legal subject.

Traditionally, the legal privacy paradigm is focused on the individual in two ways. First, both in juridical doctrine and in jurisprudence, privacy is predominantly regarded as a subjective right: It gives the legal subject control over his personal data and allows him to enter a legal dispute when this right is violated. Second, privacy is usually not regarded as having an intrinsic value, but is evaluated in relation to achieving other, individual interests, such as autonomy , negative freedom and dignity.

In a world where information flows steadily become bigger and more complex, this individual based paradigm is increasingly criticized on two grounds. (1) Since privacy is a subjective right, the legal subject must substantiate his specific, legitimate interest in a legal dispute. Thus, it has to be plausible to a judge that the subject’s right to privacy is violated by a specific practice, or that it is likely that this will occur. (1a) However, with the emergence of registration techniques, the legal subject is often unaware that his behavior is monitored in the first place. (1b) Registered and stored data are often analyzed by generic data mining rules and algorithms, which harvest large databases and create aggregated data and group profiles. It is difficult to pinpoint the specific individual aspect and interest in this process. (1c) Specific to the right to privacy is that even when a legal dispute is won, the damage is often already done and irreparable.

(2) Like privacy, privacy violations are usually seen as instrumental to achieving certain values. For example, the state’s close monitoring of the behavior of citizens is often legitimized as being necessary in relation to security policies (Foucault; Scott). Since societal values relating to for example security are often seen as higher or as more important than individual values relating to autonomy, dignity, or freedom, privacy is often outweighed by other interests both in the process of law making and in judicial decision making.

A virtue-based approach to privacy regulation will not balance public interests with individual claims to privacy, but assess whether an actor has lived up to his responsibility to act in a virtuous manner. While the current legal paradigm (1) is based on the individual right of a legal subject, and (2) this individual right refers to the personal (non-public) interests of that legal subject, a virtue-based approach to privacy regulation (1) refers to the responsibilities of the actor of a privacy violation and (2) judges his actions on their own merits (that is, virtuousness), without referring directly to the specific interests of the legal subject. The envisaged benefit of a virtue-based approach is that actors could be evaluated and judged even without the right or interest of a specific legal subject being violated. This facilitates pre-emptive action against future privacy violations and could offer a satisfying alternative for situations in which it is difficult to pinpoint specific individual interests (e.g. with regard to generic data mining rules and algorithms which harvest large databases and create aggregated data and group profiles). Both could prove indispensable in a world where information flows steadily become bigger and more complex.

To develop this approach, first, the juridical framework and its critics are discussed. Second, an ethical perspective will be provided to interpret the criticism and to offer an alternative approach to privacy regulation. Third, this alternative, virtue-based approach will be analyzed and further developed in legal terms; a case study regarding state surveillance will be provided to analyze the possible pros and cons of a virtue-based approach to privacy regulation. The hypothesis is that a virtue-based approach will be able to overcome the current critique of the legal privacy paradigm. The study will principally focus on the relationship between the state and the citizen, that is the relationship that in legal terms is predominantly covered by constitutional law, in the European context.

Publicaties

1988 entries « 1 of 40 »
Hugenholtz, P.

In Memoriam Jan Kabel

AMI, (1), pp. 1-2, 2020.

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van Gompel, S.

Artikelen 8 tot en met 11 DSM-richtlijn: Niet of niet meer in de handel zijnde werken en andere materialen

AMI, (1), pp. 3-10, 2020.

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McGonagle, T.

The Council of Europe and Internet Intermediaries: A Case Study of Tentative Posturing

Chapter in: Human Rights in the Age of Platforms, ed. R.F. Jørgensen, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2019., pp. 227-253, 2020, ISBN: 9780262039055.

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van Hoboken, J.

The Privacy Disconnect

Chapter in: Human Rights in the Age of Platforms, ed. R.F. Jørgensen, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2019., pp. 255-284, 2020, ISBN: 9780262039055.

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Ducato, R., Hegladóttir, A., Mazgal, A., Quintais, J., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

Panel discussion at CPDP 2020: We need to talk about filters: algorithmic copyright enforcement vs data protection.

06.02.2020.

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McGonagle, T.

Szurovecz t. Hongarije (EHRM, nr. 15428/16) - Court underscores importance of direct news-gathering by journalists

European Human Rights Cases, 2020.

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Hugenholtz, P., Poort, J.

Film Financing in the Digital Single Market: Challenges to Territoriality

IIC, 51 (2), pp. 167-186, 2020.

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Dommering, E.

De 'Affaire Ruf': Crisis in het Stedelijk Museum

Brave New Books, 2020, ISBN: 9789402133592.

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Fahy, R., Voorhoof, D.

Journalist and editor’s conviction for incitement to religious hatred violated Article 10

2020.

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Irion, K., Williams, J.

Prospective Policy Study on Artificial Intelligence and EU Trade Policy

2020.

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Dobber, T., Fahy, R., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

The regulation of online political micro-targeting in Europe

Internet Policy Review, 8 (4), 2020.

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Keller, P.

Article 17 stakeholder dialogue: What we have learned so far - Part 1

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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Keller, P.

Article 17 stakeholder dialogue: What we have learned so far - Part 2

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2020.

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Dommering, E.

‘Stedelijk Museum verkeert al sinds 2003 in crisis’

Het Parool, 2020, (Opinie).

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Irion, K., Yakovleva, S.

Toward Compatibility of the EU Trade Policy with the General Data Protection Regulation

AJIL Unbound, 114 , pp. 10-14, 2020.

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Quintais, J.

The New Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive: A Critical Look

European Intellectual Property Review, 42 (1), pp. 28-41, 2020.

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Dommering, E.

De arresten Funke Medien, Spiegel Onlineen Pelham van het HvJ EU van 29 juli 2019

AMI, 2019 (6), pp. 185-191, 2020.

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van Eechoud, M.

Artikel 15 DSM-richtlijn: bescherming van perspublicaties met betrekking tot onlinegebruik (persuitgeversrecht)

AMI, 2019 (6), pp. 197-202, 2020.

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van Daalen, O.

Openingssalvo in nieuwe Nederlandse Crypto Wars?

Mediaforum, 2019 (6), pp. 205, 2020, (Opinie).

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Goldstein, P., Hugenholtz, P.

International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice

Oxford University Press, 2019.

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Giannopoulou, A.

Access and Reuse of Machine-Generated Data for Scientific Research

Erasmus Law Review, (2), pp. 155-165, 2019.

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Rucz, M.

Does the doctrine of exhaustion apply to videogames purchased digitally? French court says oui

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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Fahy, R., van Hoboken, J.

European Regulation of Smartphone Ecosystems

European Data Protection Law Review (EDPL), 5 (4), pp. 476-491, 2019.

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van Eijk, N.

Kroniek Telecommunicatierecht

KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi, (153), pp. 9001-9002, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie EU 14 februari 2019 (Letland / Buivids)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (48/49), pp. 7166-7168, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie EU 24 september 2019 (Google / Frankrijk)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (48/49), pp. 7182-7185, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie EU 24 september 2019 (Google / Frankrijk II)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (48/49), pp. 7197-7200, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie 3 oktober 2019 (Facebook / Glawischnig)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (48/49), pp. 7206-7208, 2019.

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Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini, Irion, K.

Fundamental rights review of EU data collection instruments and programmes

2019, (Final report).

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McGonagle, T., Volgenant, O.

Kroniek Persrecht 2018

Mediaforum, 2019 (5), pp. 167-169, 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Spinoza en het internet: tussen ‘libertas philosophandi’ en het ‘ultimi barbarorum’

24.11.2019.

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Bednarski, M., Francese Coutinho, M., McGonagle, T., Zimin, A.

Elections and media in digital times

2019, (In-Focus edition of the World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Series, UNESCO, Paris, November 2019).

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Power, L., van Eijk, N., Zimin, A., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

Kansspelreclame: toestaan, beperken, verbieden? : Onderzoek over mogelijke regels voor kansspelreclame voor het Directoraat-Generaal Straffen en Beschermen van het Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid

2019.

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Jütte, B.J., Quintais, J.

Sample, sample in my song, can they tell where you are from? The Pelham judgment – Part II

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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Fahy, R., Voorhoof, D.

Denying journalist access to asylum-seeker ‘reception centre’ in Hungary violated Article 10 ECHR

Strasbourg Observers, 2019.

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Frosio, G., Hugenholtz, P., Husovec, M., Jütte, B.J., Quintais, J., Senftleben, M., van Gompel, S.

Safeguarding User Freedoms in Implementing Article 17 of the Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive: Recommendations from European Academics

2019.

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Quintais, J.

Safeguarding User Freedoms in Implementing Article 17 of the Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive: Recommendations from European Academics

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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van Daalen, O.

Justitie toegang geven tot versleutelde chatberichten is geen goed idee

Trouw, 2019, (Opinie).

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Jütte, B.J., Quintais, J.

Sample, sample in my song, can they tell where you are from? The Pelham judgment – Part I

Kluwer Copyright Blog, 2019.

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Appelman, N., Fahy, R., Helberger, N., Leerssen, P., McGonagle, T., van Eijk, N., van Hoboken, J.

De verspreiding van desinformatie via internetdiensten en de regulering van politieke advertenties

2019, (Tussenrapportage oktober 2019).

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Hugenholtz, P.

Annotatie bij Rb Noord-Nederland 24 juli 2019 (Piet Hein Eek / Dudink)

AMI, 2019 (5), pp. 180-181, 2019.

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Hugenholtz, P.

Artikelen 3 en 4 DSM-richtlijn: tekst- en datamining

AMI, 2019 (5), pp. 167-171, 2019.

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Keller, P.

Over artikel 14 DSM-richtlijn: Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner digitalen Reproduzierbarkeit: Reactie van een fijnproever

AMI, 2019 (5), pp. 172-173, 2019.

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McGonagle, T.

Why Quality Journalism Matters? Tarlach McGonagle answers the question ahead of the international conference in Ljubljana

31.10.2019, (Council of Europe video).

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Hugenholtz, P.

Annotatie bij HvJ EU 31 mei 2016 (Reha Training), HvJ EU 29 november 2017 (Vcast) en HvJ EU 7 augustus 2018 (Renckoff)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, 2019 (43), pp. 6142-6145, 2019.

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Rucz, M.

Territorial scope of the “right to erasure” limited to the EU

IRIS, 2019.

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Fahy, R., Voorhoof, D.

ECtHR engages in dangerous "triple pirouette" to find criminal prosecution for media coverage of PKK statements did not violate Article 10

Strasbourg Observers, 2019.

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Angelopoulos, C., Quintais, J.

Fixing Copyright Reform: A Better Solution to Online Infringement

JIPITEC, 10 (2), 2019.

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Ausloos, J., Helberger, N., Leerssen, P., Vreese, C.H. de, Zarouali, B.

Platform ad archives: promises and pitfalls

Internet Policy Review, 8 (4), 2019.

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Dommering, E.

Annotatie bij Hoge Raad 2 juli 2019 (nr. 348)

Nederlandse Jurisprudentie, (40), pp. 5658-5659, 2019.

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1988 entries « 1 of 40 »