for Information Law (IViR)
Korte Spinhuissteeg 3
1012 CG Amsterdam
1012 CX Amsterdam
+31 20 - 525 39 47
+31 20 - 525 30 33
Dr. Lucie Guibault is associate professor at the
Institute for Information Law of the University of
Amsterdam (UvA). She studied law at the Université de
Montréal (Canada) and received in 2002 her doctorate
from the University of Amsterdam, where she defended her
thesis on Copyright Limitations and Contracts: An
Analysis of the Contractual Overridability of
Limitations on Copyright.
She is specialized in international and comparative
copyright and intellectual property law. Lucie Guibault
has been carrying out research for the European
Commission, Dutch ministries, UNESCO and the Council of
main areas of interest include copyright and related
rights in the information society, open content
licensing, collective rights management, limitations and
exceptions in copyright, and author’s contract law. She
has been involved as legal partner in Creative Commons
Netherlands since 2005 and in projects related to
Europeana (EuropeanaConnect and Europeana Awareness)
She is in charge of the coordination of the IViR
International Copyright Law Summer Course.
Dr. Guibault is member of the international editorial
Les Cahiers de propriété intellectuelle, member
of the editorial board of the
Journal of Intellectual Property and Information
Technology (JIPITEC), and correspondent for the
Computer Law Review International
Licensing Research Data under Open Access Conditions,
in: D. Beldiman (ed.), Information and Knowledge:
21st Centurt Challenges in Intellectual Property and
Knowledge Governance, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar,
Helberger, M.B.M. Loos, C. Mak, L. Pessers &
B. van der Sloot)
Digital Consumers and the Law:
Towards a Cohesive European Framework, Kluwer
Law International: Alphen aan den Rijn 2013.
This book provides
a critical analysis of how digitisation affects
established concepts and policies in consumer law.
Based on evidence of the actual experience and
problems encountered by consumers in digital
markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of
the main issues arising in relation to the
application of general consumer and sector-specific
law. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from
the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law
(CSECL) and the Institute for Information Law
(IViR), both University of Amsterdam, combine their
expertise in general consumer and contract law,
telecommunications law, media law, copyright law and
privacy law in a joint effort to point the way to a
truly cohesive European Framework for Digital
Consumers and the Law.
Topics in this book include the characteristics of
digital content markets and how they relate to
traditional consumer law; consumer concerns,
reasonable expectations and how they are protected
by law; the difficult question of the classification
of digital content; legal questions triggered by
prosumers and underage consumers; the feasibility
and future of the information approach to consumer
protection; the role of fundamental rights
considerations, and the legal implications of an
economy that uses personal data as the new currency.
Digital Consumers and the Law
is an important analysis for all those interested or
involved in the regulation of digital content
markets. With its comprehensive discussion of a wide
range of fundamental as well as praxis-oriented
questions, it is an essential read for academics,
policy makers, members of the content industry as
well as consumer representatives.
See more details about
(with R. van der Noll, S.J. van
Gompel, J. Weda,
J. Poort, I. Akker &
Flexible Copyright: The Law and Economics of Introducing
and Open Norm in the Netherlands, study commissioned
by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture &
Innovation, SEO-rapport nr. 2012-60, Amsterdam, August
This study analyses the law and
economics of introducing flexibility in the system
of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright
law. Flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the
basis of which the courts can decide whether certain
uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not,
instead of explicitly defining this in the law. The
report assesses problem areas where the lack of
flexibility creates legal disputes and potential
barriers to innovation and production. The core of
the study concerns the analysis of the economic
rationale and effects of introducing flexibility in
the Dutch legal order in the form of an open norm.
Clash of cultures - integrating copyright and consumer
law, info, 2012-6, p. 23-33.
In digital content markets,
access to and use of digital content products are
largely subject to contractual agreements and
licensing conditions between suppliers and
consumers. The fact that consumers acquire digital
content by way of contractual arrangements implies
that their relationship with the suppliers of these
products is governed by two sets of rules: consumer
law and copyright law. Attempts to integrate
copyright and consumer law and policy and to
accommodate the interests of the consumer of
copyright protected content soon encounter
conceptual and political challenges. The question
that this article examines is what the main
conceptual differences between consumer and
copyright law, and the resulting ‘‘clash of
cultures’’ are that need to be overcome before
dealing successfully with copyright law related
matters in consumer law.
Press Exception in the Dutch Copyright Act, in: A Century of Dutch
Copyright Law. Auteurswet 1912-2012,
A.A. Quaedvlieg & D.J.G. Visser (eds.), Amsterdam:
deLex 2012, 554 pp.
Helberger, M.B.M. Loos, C. Mak & L. Pessers)
Digital content contracts for consumers,
Consumer Policy, 6 July 2012.
The application of consumer law to
digital content contracts encounters a number of
obstacles. Some of these are rather typical for
digital content markets, e.g., the legal
consequences of the classification of digital
content as “goods” or “services” and, more
importantly, the absence of general benchmarks to
evaluate the conformity of digital content. Other
problems, such as the limited usefulness of consumer
information and the position of underage consumers,
are not as such reserved to digital consumers, but
they are amplified in the digital content markets.
Moreover, particular attention is paid to the
complex relationship between copyright law and
consumer law. This paper explores the extent to
which consumer (contract) law is fit to address the
problems faced by digital consumers wishing to enjoy
the benefits of digital content and examines whether
the on-going initiatives at national and European
level are likely to provide relief. Finally,
recommendations for improvement are put forward in
cases where the analysis shows that the problems
identified are not or are insufficiently solved by
Digital content services for consumers: Comparative
analysis of the applicable legal frameworks and
suggestions for the contours of a model system of
consumer protection in relation to digital content
services, Report 1: Country reports, Centre for the
Study of European Contract Law (CSECL) & Institute for
Information Law (IViR), 2012, 432 pp.
The Centre for the
Study of European Contract Law (CSECL) and the
Institute for Information Law (IViR) were
commissioned by the European Commission to conduct a
study on digital content services for consumers.
This report contains the country reports of 9 Member
States - Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United
Kingdom - and two legal systems from outside the EU,
i.e. Norway and the United States. The country
reports contain the responses of national experts to
a questionnaire developed by the CSECL and the IViR.
(with J. Axhamn)
Solving Europeana's mass-digitization issues through
Extended Collective Licensing? Nordiskt
Immateriellt Rättsskydd, 2011-6, p. 509-516.
The ever increasing
use of the Internet and of digitization technologies
have opened up new possibilities for distributing
and accessing creative content online, including for
cultural heritage institutions. However, the
digitization and dissemination of a substantial
proportion of the collections held by European
cultural institutions maybe considerably hindered
due to high transaction costs related to clearance
of copyright and related rights. This holds equally
true for the cultural institutions taking part in
the Europeana project. A recent study -
extended collective licensing: a solution to online
dissemination of Europe's cultural heritage -
examines whether the Nordic 'extended collective
licensing' (ECL) model could provide a viable
solution to the problems of digitization and
dissemination of copyright protected works held by
cultural heritage institutions, with a brief
incursion into the issue of the cross-border
dissemination of works. This article summarises the
main findings of the study.
The Netherlands: Darfurnica, Miffy and the right to
parody! JIPITEC, 2011-3, p. 236-248.
The legal community
of the Netherlands let out a sigh of relief in May
2011 when the judgment of the District Court of The
Hague in preliminary proceedings was handed down in
the Darfurnica case. The same feeling of
satisfaction prevailed, more recently, when the
Court of Appeal of Amsterdam rendered decision in
the Miffy case. Both decisions, rendered on appeal,
overruled the judgments of first instance, which had
given precedence to the protection of intellectual
property rights above the user's freedom of
expression in the form of parody. But freedom of
expression, and parody in particular, are solidly
anchored in the Dutch values and courts more often
than not find in favour of the parodist. Apart from
the fact that both decisions offer an interesting
analysis of where the limit lies between
intellectual property protection and artistic
freedom, each decision deserves a few words of
commentary in view of some noteworthy
(with M.B.M. Loos,
N. Helberger, C. Mak)
The Regulation of Digital Content Contracts in the
Optional Instrument of Contract Law, European Review of
Private Law, 2011-6, p. 729-758.
The past decade has
shown a rapid development of the markets for digital
content. The further development of these markets,
however, may be hindered because of the lack of a
functioning legal framework to deal with digital
content contracts. In this article, it is argued
that the future Optional Instrument should contain
rules governing digital content contracts. Moreover,
suggestions are made as to the content of such
(with M.B.M. Loos,
Mak, L. Pessers, K.J. Cseres,
B. van der Sloot
& R. Tigner)
Analysis of the applicable legal frameworks and
suggestions for the contours of a model system of
consumer protection in relation to digital content
contracts, Final Report, Comparative analysis, Law &
Economics analysis, assessment and development of
recommendations for possible future rules on digital
More information on the
website of the European Commission.
Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution
to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?,
Amsterdam: Institute for Information Law August 2011.
Final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect.
K. van 't Klooster)
Report of the Netherlands,
to be published in R.M. Hilty & S. Nérisson (ed.),
The Balance of Copyright, a Comparative Approach,
Springer Verlag, 2011.
Owning the Right to Open Up Access to Scientific
in L. Guibault & C.J.
Angelopoulos (ed.), Open Content Licensing: From
Theory to Practice,
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011, p. 137-167.
Open Content Licensing from Theory to Practice
- An Introduction,
in L. Guibault & C.J.
Angelopoulos (ed.), Open Content Licensing: From
Theory to Practice,
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011, p. 7-20.
S.J. van Gompel)
Collective Management in the European Union,
in Daniel Gervais (ed.), Collective Management of
Copyright and Related Rights, second edition, Alphen
aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2010, p.
examines efforts to regulate the collective
management of copyright at the European level. It is
divided in three main parts. First, the chapter
describes the current state of the law concerning
collective rights management organizations (CMOs) in
Europe, as pronounced over the past few decades in
decisions of the European Court of Justice and the
European Commission in competition matters. Second,
the chapter discusses the recent efforts deployed by
the European lawmakers toward the establishment of a
legal framework governing the activities of CMOs in
Europe, and more specifically the multi-territorial
licensing of online music services. The third part
analyses the actual and potential impact on the
market for the cross-border collective management of
legitimate online music services of the most recent
measures adopted by the European bodies. The chapter
critically concludes on the overall state of the law
in Europe pertaining to CMOs.
Open Content Licensing from Theory to Practice,
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011.
This book assembles
chapters written by renowned European scholars on a
number of selected issues relating to open content
licensing. It offers a comprehensive and objective
study of the principles of open content from a
European intellectual property law perspective and
of their possible implementation in practice.
M.M.M. van Eechoud,
S.J. van Gompel,
B. van der Sloot
& P.B. Hugenholtz)
Report of the Netherlands for ALAI 2011 Study Days
Creative Commons Licenses: What to Do with the Database
Right?, Computers and Law Magazine, 'The
Future of Open', 2011-6.
Contrary to other
types of open content licenses, Creative Commons
licenses are intended to be translated and adapted
to the laws of a maximum of jurisdictions in the
world. Local or regional peculiarities of the
copyright regime can sometimes require an adaptation
to the licenses that would disrupt their worldwide
similarity. This article focuses on one of these
peculiarities: the European sui generis database
right. It describes how the database right was
excluded from the scope of the Creative Commons
licenses and discusses the possible consequences of
such an exclusion for the Creative Commons movement
and for the users of the licenses in Europe.
Why Cherry Picking Never Leads to Harmonisation: The
Case of the Limitations on Copyright under Directive
2001/29/EC, JIPITEC, 2010-2, p. 55-66.
examines whether the norms laid down in the
Directive in relation to the exceptions and
limitations on copyright and related rights can be
conducive to a sensible degree of harmonisation
across the European Union. Before discussing the
degree of harmonisation achieved so far by the
Directive, the first part gives a short overview of
the main characteristics of the list op exceptions
and limitations contained in Article 5 of the
Directive. A comprehensive review of the
implementation of each limitation by the Member
States is beyond the scope of this article. The
following section takes a closer look at three
examples of limitations that have led to legislative
changes at the Member State level as express
measures towards the implementation of the
Information Society Directive, that is, the
limitations for the benefit of libraries, for
teaching and research, and for persons with a
disability. These exceptions and limitations were
later on also identified by the European Commission
as key elements in the deployment of a digital
knowledge economy. The analysis will show that the
implementation of the provisions on limitations in
the Information Society Directive did not, and
probably cannot, yield the expected level of
harmonisation across the European Union and that, as
a consequence, there still exists a significant
degree of uncertainty for the stakeholders regarding
the extent of permissible acts with respect to
copyright protected works.
E.H. Janssen, N.A.N.M. van Eijk,
van Hoboken, E. Swart, et al.)
User-Created-Content: Supporting a participative
Information Society, Final Report, Study carried
out for the European Commission by
IDATE, TNO and IViR, 2008.
M.M.M. van Eechoud,
S. van Gompel and
Harmonizing European Copyright Law: The Challenges of
Better Lawmaking, Information Law Series 19, Alphen
aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International 2009.
Nobody likes today’s
copyright law. Widespread unauthorized use of copyright material proliferates
with impunity, while citizens and users protest that intrusive copyright
and related rights law stifle cultural expression. Equipment manufacturers
and intermediaries complain about yet more security’ features
that complicate their products and services and encumber marketing, while
content owners desperately want enforcement to work. And of course it is
crucial that whatever regulatory instruments come into play must not age
prematurely in Internet time.
The European Union faces the daunting challenge of articulating coherent
copyright policies that satisfy these contradictory multiple demands. Yet
the legal framework must conform to the European Union’s remit of fostering
economic growth in a common market, while respecting the national traditions
of its still growing family of Member States. Clearly, an extraordinary balancing
act is called for if justice is to be done to all of the private and public
So how has the European acquis communautaire scored on these issues so far?
In this groundbreaking study the Institute for Information Law of the University
of Amsterdam brings its extensive academic expertise to bear on this question.
The authors scrutinize the present law as laid down in the seven copyright
and related rights directives, against the background of the relevant international
standards of the Berne Convention, the TRIPs agreement, and the WIPO Internet
Treaties. They map out in detail the degree to which certain areas of copyright
have been harmonized as they expose the gaps and inconsistencies in the acquis
and the urgent unresolved issues that persist. They identify the EU’s
ambitions in relation to its present and future competences (following the
Lisbon Reform) to regulate copyright, and to its Better Regulation agenda.
Following a comprehensive analysis of almost two decades of regulatory intervention,
they move on to the salient current trends that point toward a more coherent
and balanced European copyright law.
Commons: Struggling to ‘Keep it Simple’,
in E. Schweighofer & P. Sint (Ed.), Conference
Proceedings KnowRight 08, Wenen: Österreichische
Computer Gesellschaft 2008, p. 75-83.
the Needs of iConsumers: Making Sure They Get Their
Money’s Worth of Digital Entertainment,
Journal of Consumer Policy, Volume 31, Issue 4
(2008), p. 409.d
|(with G. Westkamp, T.
Rieber-Mohn, et al.)
on the Implementation and Effect in Member States' laws
of Directive 2001/29/EC on the Harmonisation of Certain
Aspects of Copyright and Related Rights in the
Information Society, report to the European
Commission, DG Internal Market, February 2007.
commissioned by the European Commission, examines the
application of Directive 2001/29/EC in the light of
the development of the digital market. Its purpose is
to consider how Member States have implemented the
Directive into national law and to assist the
Commission in evaluating whether the Directive, as
currently formulated, remains the appropriate response
to the continuing challenges faced by the stakeholders
concerned, such as rights holders, commercial users,
consumers, educational and scientific users. As set
out in specifications of the study set out by the
Commission, its aim is "to assess the role that
the Directive has played in fostering the digital
market for goods and services in the four years since
its adoption". The impact of the Directive on the
development of digital (chiefly online) business
models, therefore, will be the focal point of our
enquiry throughout this study.
(with S.J. van Gompel) Collective
Management in the European Union, also published in:
Daniel Gervais (ed.), Collective Management of
Copyright and Related Rights, The Hague, Kluwer Law
International, 2006, p. 117-152.
Information in Contract: How Does it Affect the Public
Domain? in: L. Guibault and P.B.
Hugenholtz, The Future of the Public Domain -
Identifying the Commons in Information Law,
Information Law Series 16, The Hague: Kluwer Law
International 2006, p. 87-104.
Contracts are an
essential tool in the distribution of information. If
a specific element of information has any commercial
value at all, its access and use will most likely be
governed by the terms of a license, whether it is
protected by an intellectual property or not. The
central question addressed in this chapter is whether
the use of contracts with respect to the distribution
of public domain information bears any impact on the
supply of information and on the composition of the
public domain. Would contracts that restrict the use
of public domain information or limit the exercise of
uses privileged under the law be actually enforced by
the courts? If so, would the use of contracts in the
trade of information tend to increase the amount of
information available to the public anyway? Or would
it, on the contrary, withdraw from the public domain
some elements of information that were until then
Hugenholtz, M.M.M. van
Eechoud, S.J. van Gompel,
Recasting of Copyright & Related Rights for the
Knowledge Economy, report to the European
Commission, DG Internal Market, November 2006, 308 p.
See also the executive
Study carried out by
the Institute for Information Law for the European
Commission (DG Internal Market). Chapters 1 and 2
describe and examine the existing 'acquis
communautaire' in the field of copyright and related
(neighbouring) rights, with special focus on
inconsistencies and unclarities. Chapters 3-6 deal
with distinct issues that were identified a priori by
the European Commission as meriting special attention:
possible extension of the term of protection of
phonograms (Chapter 3), possible alignment of the term
of protection of co-written musical works (Chapter 4),
the problems connected to multiple copyright
ownership, including the issue of 'orphan works'
(Chapter 5), and copyright awareness among consumers
(Chapter 6). Chapter 7 provides an overall assessment
of the benefits and drawbacks of the fifteen years of
harmonisation of copyright and related rights in the
EU and dwells on regulatory alternatives.
Hugenholtz, eds.) The Future of the Public Domain
- Identifying the Commons in Information Law,
Information Law Series 16, The Hague: Kluwer Law
International 2006 (ISBN 9041124357).
The presence of a
robust public domain is an essential precondition for
cultural, social and economic development and for a
healthy democratic process. But the public domain is
under pressure as a result of the ongoing march
towards an information economy.
This book takes a broad, 'information law' oriented
approach towards the question of preservering the
public domain, in which a wide range of interrelated
legal questions converge.
Thirteen contributions from academia worldwide make up
the present book, addressing the future of the public
domain from a different angle. In addition, all
authors were invited to reflect upon the notion and
role of the public domain in the context of
information law and policy.
Read chapter 1:
Future of the Public Domain. An introduction.
van Daalen) Unravelling the myth around open
source licences : An analysis from a Dutch and European
law perspective, Information technology & law
series 8, The Hague: T.M.C.
Asser Press 2006 (ISBN 9067042145).
This study gives an
overview of the current legal situation regarding the
use of open source software licences and investigates
how the most commonly used open source software
licences measure up to Dutch and European law.
By its in-depth analysis and clear conclusions, this
book contributes to the understanding of this complex
field that policy makers, regulators, and academics so
crucially require. Taking the provisions of the GNU
GPL, the BSD, and the Mozilla Public Licence as
examples, it investigates the implications of open
source licensing from a private law, copyright law and
patent law perspective. It also takes a brief look at
the issue of the enforcement of these licences. To
facilitate the use and enforcement of open source
software licences in Europe, and more particularly in
the Netherlands, the authors conclude their study by
making a number of recommendations for the adaptation
of the licence terms with a view to enhancing their
compliance with the legal requirements.
See also the
version of this book.
Law and Consumer Protection, European Consumer
Law Group, February 2005.
Policy conclusions of the European Consumer Law Group
(ECLG) based on a study carried out by L. Guibault and
The purpose of this
study is to provide an overview of certain key aspects
of the relationship between copyright law and consumer
protection. More particularly, the paper concentrates
on what would appear today as the most problematic
issue, from the perspective of the consumer,
understood in the narrow sense of the word, namely the
implementation of technological protection measures
(TPM) and digital rights management (DRM) systems and
its implication for the exercise of the private use
|(with R. Melzer)
Legal Protection of Broadcast Signals', IRIS plus,
quand l'octroi de licences transfrontières pour
l'utilisation de droits d'auteur et de droits voisins en
Europe?’, Les Cahiers de Propriété
Intellectuelle, vol. 16, 2004-HS (Hors série), p.
qui téléchargez des oeuvres de l'Internet, pourrait-on
savoir qui vous êtes?’, Revue du Droit des
Technologies de l'Information, 2004-18, p. 9-31.
contract law: towards a statutory regulation? Study
conducted on commission for
the department of Scientific Research and Documentation
Centre (WODC) of the Dutch Ministry of Justice,August
2004 (Text in the Dutch language).
For an English
translation of the Summary, please
nature and scope of limitations and exceptions to
copyright and neighbouring rights with regard to general
interest missions for the transmission of knowledge:
prospects for their adaptation to the digital
environment’, Copyright Bulletin December
reprography levies across the European Union, L.M.C.R.
Guibault, March 2003.
Hugenholtz & S.M. van
Future of Levies in a Digital Environment’, March
Bakels & P.B.
Parliament Hearing on Software Patentability
tir manqué de la Directive européenne sur le droit
d'auteur dans la société de l'information, Cahiers
de propriété intellectuelle, 2003/15, pp. 537-573.
Hugenholtz; assisted by M.A.R.
Vermunt & M.
on the conditions applicable to contracts relating to
intellectual property in the European Union,
final report, study commissioned by the EC (May 2002).
Limitations and Contracts. An Analysis of the
Contractual Overridability of Limitations on Copyright,
Law Series Vol. 9, London / The Hague / Boston:
Kluwer Law International, February 2002, 392 pp.,
hardbound (ISBN 90-411-9867-9).
law strikes a delicate balance between an author’s
control of original material and society’s interest
in the free flow of ideas, information, and commerce.
In today’s digitally networked environment, this
balance has shifted dramatically to one side, as
powerful rights holders contractually impose terms and
conditions of use far beyond the bounds set by
copyright law. This vitally significant book explores
this conflict from its gestation through its current
manifestations to its future lineaments and potential
Focusing on statutory
copyright limitations that enshrine constitutional
rights such as freedom of expression and privacy,
foster dissemination of knowledge, safeguard
competition, and protect authors from market failure, Copyright
Limitations and Contracts clearly explains the
rationale for these limitations and questions the
legality of overriding them by contractual means. The
author finds a complex array of factors clouding the
emergence of coherent rules in the matter, among them
the nature of the contract (e.g., fully negotiated vs.
“shrink-wrap”), the respective interests of the
parties involved, and the legislated policy of
particular regimes. She points out that the United
States’ new Uniform Computer Information
Transactions Act (UCITA), which is likely to be
adopted by many U.S. States and influence similar
legislation in many other countries, leaves this
crucial issue essentially unresolved.
Among the author’s
many startling insights is that, contrary to the
commonly held notion that the Internet is a bastion of
free speech, in fact it is now possible (via
encryption technology) for the first time in human
history to exercise absolute control over copyrighted
material, even under circumstances of global mass
distribution. As we become more and more aware that
the intersection of copyright and contract reveals one
of the deepest and most far-reaching contradictions of
our time, this illuminating analysis will be of
extraordinary value to jurists in every area of public
and private law.
paper on the question of Exceptions to and limitations
on copyright and neighbouring rights in the digital era,
Strasbourg, October 1998.
Issues in the Digital Environment: Can Copyright
Limitations Be Overridden by Contractual Agreements
under European Law?', in F.W. Grosheide & K.
Boele-Woelki (red.), Molengrafica nr. 11. Europees
Privaatrecht 1998. Opstellen over Internationale
Transacties en Intellectuele Eigendom, Lelystad:
Koninklijke Vermande 1998, p. 225-262.
found outside of copyright law', General report
prepared for the ALAI STUDY DAYS Cambridge, September
14-17, 1998: The Exceptions And Limitations To
between Authors or Performers and Collective Rights
Societies: Comparative Study of Some Provisions,
Report prepared for the 1997 ALAI Congress held in
Montebello, Canada, Montreal: ALAI Canada 1997.
Text in French - with
the Introduction and a summary for each chapter
translated into English. Available in paper format
with ALAI Canada for $ 75. CDN.
In the context of the
1997 Congress of the Association Littéraire et
Artistique Internationale (ALAI), entitled 'Protection
of Authors and Performers through Contracts', the
Canadian Group of ALAI wished to draw particular
attention to the legal relationship existing between
authors or performers and collective rights societies.
The nature of the copyrights and neighbouring rights
conferred by law, the legal framework surrounding the
structure and operations of collective societies,
their number in each territory and the presence of
complementary professional associations are
determining factors in the definition of the scope of
protection granted to authors and performers. Taking
these elements into account, this report analyzes
around fifty agreements entered into by authors and
performers on the one hand, and organizations whose
activities consist of collecting and distributing
copyrights and neighbouring rights, on the other hand.
The study is divided into two main chapters, the first
one dealing with the contractual relationship between
members and the society, and the second one examining
the extent to which members may participate in the
operations of the society.
programmes d'ordinateur et le droit d'innovation
technologique', Cahiers de Propriété
Intellectuelle (9) 1997-2, p. 171-202.
Text in French. This
article discusses the legal protection of computer
software and proposes the creation of a new sui
generis right more suited to the characteristics
of this technology. The proposal of a new
technological innovation right arises from the
experience acquired over the last twenty years with
respect to computer software protection. The
parameters of this new right are inspired by copyright
law, patent law, integrated circuit topography law, as
well as the new sui generis right on databases
recognized in Europe. This article presents the
technological innovation right: the scope of its
application, the exclusive rights granted and their
limitations, the formalities for acquisition and the
duration of the protection.