Christina Angelopoulos
Institute for Information Law (IViR)

Korte Spinhuissteeg 3
1012 CG Amsterdam
The Netherlands

kamer B2.20
tel: +31 20 - 525 3645
fax: +31 20 - 525 3033


Curriculum Vitae

Christina Angelopoulos studied law at the University of Athens and went on to complete her LL.M. course on European law at the University of Edinburgh. She joined IViR in 2008, where, alongside other research projects, she worked as editor for IRIS, the monthly newsletter on audiovisual law published by the European Audiovisual Observatory. As part of the EuropeanaConnect project, she also performed and coordinated the legal research behind the creation of IViR and NL Kennisland's online Public Domain Calculators.

Currently, Christina is a Ph.D. candidate at IViR. Her thesis will focus on the liability of online intermediaries for copyright infringement.

Are blocking injunctions against ISPs allowed in Europe? Copyright enforcement in the post-Telekabel EU legal landscape, Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, first published online August 13, 2014. 

In recent years, the national courts of the EU Member States, in an attempt to stem the flow of rampant online copyright infringement, have increasingly turned to the issuance of blocking injunctions against the intermediaries whose websites and networks are used by third parties to commit infringements. This article examines the legal framework in place at the EU level with regard to the legality of such injunctive orders, making a distinction between filtering measures, used to detect copyright infringements, and blocking measures, used to put an end to them. On the basis of that analysis, a detailed examination will be made of the latest CJEU ruling to apply this framework, Case C-314/12, UPC Telekabel Wien GmbH v Constantin Film Verleih GmbH on the lawfullness of open-ended blocking injunctions against internet access providers.


Beyond the Safe Harbours: Harmonising Substantive Intermediary Liability for Copyright Infringement in Europe, Intellectual Property Quarterly, 2013-3, p. 253-274.


The Myth of European Term Harmonisation: 27 Public Domains for the 27 Member States, IIC, 2012-5, p. 567.


Determining the Term of Protection for Films: When Does a Film Fall into the Public Domain in Europe? IRIS Plus, 2012-2.


(ed. with A. Ramalho) Crossroads of Intellectual Property: the Intersection of Intellectual Property and other Fields of Law, New York: Nova Publishers, 2012.

See here the foreword of the book.


Amended Directive Extends the Term of Protection for Performers and Sound Recordings, GRUR International, 2011-11, p. 987-989.


Creative Commons and Related Rights in Sound Recordings: Are the Two Systems Compatible?, in L. Guibault & C. Angelopoulos (ed.), Open Content Licensing: From Theory to Practice, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011, p. 243-295.

Can the will of the author cancel her copyright? The Creative Commons licensing system depends on a positive answer to this question, and indeed, in the area of copyright proper, for the most part this is the case. But the related rights of performers and phonogram producers are a different matter: in addition to their exclusive rights, performers and phonogram producers are also granted a right to equitable remuneration for the use of their phonograms in communications to the public or broadcasting by wireless means. Given that, in many EU Member States the right to equitable remuneration has been implemented in the form of a (waivable or non-waivable) compulsory licensing scheme, while, even where a voluntary license scheme is in place, the functional reality of collecting societies will limit the flexibility that this will allow right-owners, the following question arises: is the legal framework of related rights and the collective management systems in place for the exploitation of these rights compatible with the use of Creative Commons licenses? 
This book chapter attempts to answer this complicated question with regard to the law of the two EU Member States of the UK and the Netherlands. The issue is examined against the backdrop of the innovative flexible collective management pilot project was initiated for musical works between Buma/Stemra, the Dutch collecting society for music authors and publishers, and Creative Commons Netherlands, the Dutch branch of Creative Commons. The chapter concludes that, when contemplating the application of Creative Commons licenses to musical works in the context of the userís obligation to pay equitable remuneration to the performer and phonogram producer for use of a phonogram in a communication to the public or broadcast, three main circumstances must be kept in mind:

(a) Whether the work has been published for commercial purposes;
(b) Whether the work is offered by the user on an interactive, on-demand basis;
(c) What type of licensing scheme is established in the country in question for the management of the right.


(ed. with L. Guibault) Open Content Licensing from Theory to Practice, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011.

This book assembles chapters written by renowned European scholars on a number of selected issues relating to open content licensing. It offers a comprehensive and objective study of the principles of open content from a European intellectual property law perspective and of their possible implementation in practice.


(ed. with S. Nikoltchev and S.J. van Gompel) Digitisation and Online Exploitation of Broadcasters' Archives, IRIS Special, Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory 2010.

The archives of many television broadcasters now contain materiel which includes more than half a century of contemporary, documentary and entertainment history and are of immense cultural and economic value. Digitisation has created an entirely new technical basis for making these assets available to a wide audience, and there are a whole range of projects aimed at opening up audiovisual archives (including those of broadcasters). However, many projects to open up broadcasters' archives and exploit them online generally run up against serious problems when it comes to clearing the rights for these archived works. These problems arise, firstly, due to a contractual practice that developed in the pre-digital era and to aspects of copyright law that do not really meet the needs of the digital age. Secondly, the very large number of works stored in archives constitutes a challenge that is not easily overcome. The aim of this IRIS Special is to discuss the subject from a number of different perspectives. The team of authors involved is accordingly made up of representatives of many different interests: copyright holders and those who look after their interests, television broadcasters, lawyers and copyright experts.

See here for more information about this publication.


Product Placement in European Audiovisual Productions, IRIS plus, 2010-3.


(with N. Helberger, L. Guibault, E.H. Janssen, N.A.N.M. van Eijk, J.V.J. van Hoboken, E. Swart, et al.) User-Created-Content: Supporting a participative Information Society, Final Report, Study carried out for the European Commission by IDATE, TNO and IViR, 2008.


Filtering the Internet for Copyrighted Content in Europe, IRIS plus (Supplement to IRIS - Legal Observations of the European Audiovisual Observatory), 2009-4.


(with J.V.J. van Hoboken) Workshop on Audiovisual Search: Summary of the Discussion, in Searching for Audiovisual Content, IRIS Special, December 2008.


Freedom of Expression and Copyright - The Double Balancing Act, Intellectual Property Quarterly, 2008-3, p. 328-353.


Modern intellectual property legislation: Warm for reform, Entertainment Law Review, 2008-2, p. 35-40.


Updated 23.09.2014