Nirmala Sitompoel, ‘The
Netherlands: The Personal Data Protection Act’,
Computer und Recht International 2001-6, p. 149-150.
Personal Data Protection Act (Wet
bescherming persoonsgegevens), hereafter “the Act”,
entered into force on 1 September 2001. The Act implements
Directive 95/46/EC of 24 October 1995 on the protection of
individuals with regard to the processing of personal data
and on the free movement of such data (OJ 1995 L
281/31) and replaces the Registration of Persons Act (
Wet persoonsregistraties). This note will give an
overview of the most significant provisions of the Act.
Study on the use of
conditional access systems for reasons other than the
protection of remuneration, to examine the legal and the
economic implications within the Internal Market and the need
of introducing specific legal protection, Report
presented to the European Commission by
N. Helberger &
N.A.N.M. van Eijk.
The study offers an
analysis of the use of conditional access systems for other
reasons than the protection of remuneration interests. The
report also examines the need to provide for additional
legal protection by means of a Community initiative, such as
a possible extension of the Conditional Access Directive.
The report will give a legal and economic analysis of the
most important non-remuneration reasons to use conditional
access (CA), examine whether services based on conditional
access for these reasons are endangered by piracy
activities, to what extent existing legislation in the
Member States provides for sufficient protection, and what
the possible impact of the use of conditional access is on
the Internal Market. Furthermore, the study analysis the
specific legislation outside the European Union, notably in
Australia, Canada, Japan and the US, as well as the relevant
international rules at the level of the EC, WIPO and the
Council of Europe.
Kamiel J. Koelman
& Lee A. Bygrave,
Privacy, Data Protection and Copyright: Their Interaction in
the Context of Electronic Copyright Management Systems,
IMPRIMATUR, June 1998.